This page offers a step-by-step solution to the specific question **NCERT Class 11th Physics - Motion in a Plane | pick out the only vector quantity in the following Answer ** from NCERT Class 11th Physics, Chapter Motion in a Plane.

Question 3

## Pick out the only vector quantity in the following list: Temperature, pressure, impulse, time, power, total path length, energy, gravitational potential, coefficient of friction, charge.

Answer

Impulse

Impulse is given by the product of force and time. Since force is a vector quantity, its product with time (a scalar quantity) gives a vector quantity.

- Q:-
Rain is falling vertically with a speed of 30 m s

^{–1}. A woman rides a bicycle with a speed of 10 m s^{–1}in the north to south direction. What is the direction in which she should hold her umbrella? - Q:-
On an open ground, a motorist follows a track that turns to his left by an angle of 60° after every 500 m. Starting from a given turn, specify the displacement of the motorist at the third, sixth and eighth turn. Compare the magnitude of the displacement with the total path length covered by the motorist in each case.

- Q:- Read each statement below carefully and state with reasons, if it is true or false:

(a) The magnitude of a vector is always a scalar

(b) each component of a vector is always a scalar

(c) the total path length is always equal to the magnitude of the displacement vector of a particle

(d) the average speed of a particle (defined as total path length divided by the time taken to cover the path) is either greater or equal to the magnitude of average velocity of the particle over the same interval of time

(e) Three vectors not lying in a plane can never add up to give a null vector. - Q:-
Establish the following vector inequalities geometrically or otherwise:

(a) |a + b| ≤ |a| + |b|

(b) |a + b| ≥ ||a| − |b||

(c) |a − b| ≤ |a| + |b|

(d) |a − b| ≥ ||a| − |b||

When does the equality sign above apply?

- Q:-
A stone tied to the end of a string 80 cm long is whirled in a horizontal circle with a constant speed. If the stone makes 14 revolutions in 25 s, what is the magnitude and direction of acceleration of the stone?

- Q:-
Given a + b + c + d = 0, which of the following statements are correct:

(a) a, b, c, and d must each be a null vector,

(b) The magnitude of (a + c) equals the magnitude of (b+ d),

(c) The magnitude of a can never be greater than the sum of the magnitudes of b, c, and d,

(d) b + c must lie in the plane of a and d if a and d are not collinear, and in the line of a and d, if they are collinear?

- Q:- State with reasons, whether the following algebraic operations with scalar and vector physical quantities are meaningful:

(a) adding any two scalars,

(b) adding a scalar to a vector of the same dimensions,

(c) multiplying any vector by any scalar,

(d) multiplying any two scalars,

(e) adding any two vectors,

(f) adding a component of a vector to the same vector. - Q:-
An aircraft executes a horizontal loop of radius 1.00 km with a steady speed of 900 km/h. Compare its centripetal acceleration with the acceleration due to gravity.

- Q:-
Three girls skating on a circular ice ground of radius 200 m start from a point P on the edge of the ground and reach a point Q diametrically opposite to P following different paths as shown in Fig. 4.20. What is the magnitude of the displacement vector for each? For which girl is this equal to the actual length of the path skated?

- Q:- Pick out the two scalar quantities in the following list: force, angular momentum, work, current, linear momentum, electric field, average velocity, magnetic moment, relative velocity.

- Q:-
Some of the most profound statements on the nature of science have come from Albert Einstein, one of the greatest scientists of all time. What do you think did Einstein mean when he said : “The most incomprehensible thing about the world is that it is comprehensible”?

- Q:-
The sign of work done by a force on a body is important to understand. State carefully if the following quantities are positive or negative:

(a) work done by a man in lifting a bucket out of a well by means of a rope tied to the bucket.

(b) work done by gravitational force in the above case,

(c) work done by friction on a body sliding down an inclined plane,

(d) work done by an applied force on a body moving on a rough horizontal plane with uniform velocity,

(e) work done by the resistive force of air on a vibrating pendulum in bringing it to rest.

- Q:- In which of the following examples of motion, can the body be considered approximately a point object:

(a) a railway carriage moving without jerks between two stations.

(b) a monkey sitting on top of a man cycling smoothly on a circular track.

(c) a spinning cricket ball that turns sharply on hitting the ground.

(d) a tumbling beaker that has slipped off the edge of a table. - Q:- Give the magnitude and direction of the net force acting on

(a) a drop of rain falling down with a constant speed

(b) a cork of mass 10 g floating on water

(c) a kite skillfully held stationary in the sky

(d) a car moving with a constant velocity of 30 km/h on a rough road

(e) a high-speed electron in space far from all material objects, and free of electric and magnetic fields. - Q:-
A geyser heats water flowing at the rate of 3.0 litres per minute from 27 °C to 77 °C. If the geyser operates on a gas burner, what is the rate of consumption of the fuel if its heat of combustion is 4.0 x 10

^{4}J/g? - Q:-
Estimate the fraction of molecular volume to the actual volume occupied by oxygen gas at STP. Take the diameter of an oxygen molecule to be 3Å.

- Q:- Give the location of the centre of mass of a (i) sphere, (ii) cylinder, (iii) ring, and (iv) cube, each of uniform mass density. Does the centre of mass of a body necessarily lie inside the body?
- Q:- Answer the following: (a) You can shield a charge from electrical forces by putting it inside a hollow conductor. Can you shield a body from the gravitational influence of nearby matter by putting it inside a hollow sphere or by some other means? (b) An astronaut inside a small space ship orbiting around the earth cannot detect gravity. If the space station orbiting around the earth has a large size, can he hope to detect gravity? (c) If you compare the gravitational force on the earth due to the sun to that due to the moon, you would find that the Suns pull is greater than the moons pull. (You can check this yourself using the data available in the succeeding exercises). However, the tidal effect of the moons pull is greater than the tidal effect of sun. Why?
- Q:- Explain why (a) The blood pressure in humans is greater at the feet than at the brain (b) Atmospheric pressure at a height of about 6 km decreases to nearly half of its value at the sea level, though the height of the atmosphere is more than 100 km (c) Hydrostatic pressure is a scalar quantity even though pressure is force divided by area.
- Q:- Which of the following examples represent periodic motion? (a) A swimmer completing one (return) trip from one bank of a river to the other and back. (b) A freely suspended bar magnet displaced from its N-S direction and released. (c) A hydrogen molecule rotating about its center of mass. (d) An arrow released from a bow.

- Q:-
State if each of the following statements is true or false. Give reasons for your answer.

(a) In an elastic collision of two bodies, the momentum and energy of each body is conserved.

(b) Total energy of a system is always conserved, no matter what internal and external forces on the body are present.

(c) Work done in the motion of a body over a closed loop is zero for every force in nature.

(d) In an inelastic collision, the final kinetic energy is always less than the initial kinetic energy of the system.

- Q:-
For the travelling harmonic wave

y (x, t) = 2.0 cos 2π (10t - 0.0080 x + 0.35)

Where x and y are in cm and t in s. Calculate the phase difference between oscillatory motion of two points separated by a distance of

(a) 4 m,

(b) 0.5 m,

(c)

(d) 3λ / 4

- Q:-
A SONAR (sound navigation and ranging) uses ultrasonic waves to detect and locate objects under water. In a submarine equipped with a SONAR the time delay between generation of a probe wave and the reception of its echo after reflection from an enemy submarine is found to be 77.0 s. What is the distance of the enemy submarine? (Speed of sound in water = 1450 m s

^{-1}). - Q:-
A comet orbits the Sun in a highly elliptical orbit. Does the comet have a constant

(a) linear speed,

(b) angular speed,

(c) angular momentum,

(d) kinetic energy,

(e) potential energy,

(f) total energy throughout its orbit?

Neglect any mass loss of the comet when it comes very close to the Sun.

- Q:-
A narrow sound pulse (for example, a short pip by a whistle) is sent across a medium.

(a) Does the pulse have a definite (i) frequency, (ii) wavelength, (iii) speed of propagation?

(b) If the pulse rate is 1 after every 20 s, (that is the whistle is blown for a split of second after every 20 s), is the frequency of the note produced by the whistle equal to or 0.05 Hz?

- Q:-
A physical quantity P is related to four observables a, b, c and d as follows :

The percentage errors of measurement in a, b, c and d are 1%, 3%, 4% and 2%, respectively. What is the percentage error in the quantity P ? If the value of P calculated using the above relation turns out to be 3.763, to what value should you round off the result ?

- Q:-
The mass of a box measured by a grocer's balance is 2.300 kg. Two gold pieces of masses 20.15 g and 20.17 g are added to the box. What is

(a) the total mass of the box,

(b) the difference in the masses of the pieces to correct significant figures?

- Q:-
The principle of ‘parallax’ in section 2.3.1 is used in the determination of distances of very distant stars. The baseline AB is the line joining the Earth’s two locations six months apart in its orbit around the Sun. That is, the baseline is about the diameter of the Earth’s orbit ≈ 3 × 10

^{11}m. However, even the nearest stars are so distant that with such a long baseline, they show parallax only of the order of 1” (second) of arc or so. A parsec is a convenient unit of length on the astronomical scale. It is the distance of an object that will show a parallax of 1” (second) of arc from opposite ends of a baseline equal to the distance from the Earth to the Sun. How much is a parsec in terms of metres ? - Q:-
It is claimed that two cesium clocks, if allowed to run for 100 years, free from any disturbance, may differ by only about 0.02 s. What does this imply for the accuracy of the standard cesium clock in measuring a time-interval of 1 s?

- Q:-
The unit of length convenient on the nuclear scale is a fermi : 1 f = 10

^{ - 15}m. Nuclear sizes obey roughly the following empirical relation : r = r_{0}A^{1/3}where r is the radius of the nucleus, A its mass number, and r

_{0}is a constant equal to about, 1.2 f. Show that the rule implies that nuclear mass density is nearly constant for different nuclei. Estimate the mass density of sodium nucleus. Compare it with the average mass density of a sodium atom obtained in Exercise. 2.27.

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