NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Business Studies

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 business-studies covers all the questions given in the NCERT book. You can study and download these question and their solutions free from this page. These solutions are solved by our specialists at, that will assist all the students of respective boards, including CBSE, who follows NCERT; with tackling all the questions easily. We give chapter wise complete solutions for your straightforwardness.

  • Chapter 1 Nature and Significance of Management

    Management is the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling the efforts of members and resources of the organisation to achieve the organizational goals effectively and efficiently. This chapter also explains the objective of management, functions of management, nature of  management, coordination, the essence of management and various levels of management.

  • Chapter 2 Principles of Management

    Principles of management are general guidelines, which can be used for conduct in work places under certain situations. They help managers in decision making and their implementations. Principles of management are not as rigid as principles of science. This chapter also explains us various topics that are Nature of principles of management, Significance of principles of management, Fayol’s principles of management, Taylor’s scientific management and Principles and techniques of scientific management.

  • Chapter 3 Business Environment

    Business environment means the totality of all internal and external factors, individuals and institutions that affects the performance of the organization and influences the environment and situation of the organization. We also get to know about the others topics in this chapter and that are Importance of business environment, Elements of business environment, Liberalization, Privatization, Globalization, demonetization, Economic Environment in India and Impact of Government Policy Change on Business and Industry.

  • Chapter 4 Planning

    Planning is deciding in advance the objectives to be achieved during a given period, formulating alternative courses of action to achieve them and selecting the best course of action. It is connected with what is to be done and how it is to be done. We also get to know about the other topics in this chapter and that are concept of planning, Importance of planning, Features of planning, Limitations of planning, Planning process, Types of plans, Objectives, Strategy, Policy, Procedure, Method, Rule, Programme and Budget.

  • Chapter 5 Organising

    Identifying and grouping different activities in the organisation and bringing together the physical, financial and human resources to establish the most productive relations for the achievement of specific goals is known as organising. We also get to know about the other topics in this chapter that are the concept of organising, Steps in the process of organising, Importance of organising, Organisation structure, Types of organisation structures, Formal and Informal organisation, Delegation, Importance of delegation, Decentralisation, Importance of decentralisation.

  • Chapter 6 Staffing

    Staffing is the process of hiring and developing the required personnel to fill in various positions in the organisation. It implies placing the right person at the right job. This function of management is concerned with determining the manpower requirement, selection, placement, training and compensation of employees of an enterprise. The other content of this chapter are Meaning of Staffing, Importance of Staffing, Evolution of Human Resource Management, Staffing Process, Aspects of Staffing- Recruitment, Selection and Training, Training Methods- On the job Methods and Off the job Methods.

  • Chapter 7 Directing

    Directing means giving instructions and guiding people in doing some work. In other words directing refers to the process of instructing, guiding, leading, counseling and motivating people in an organisation to achieve predetermined objectives. Other content of this chapter are Meaning of Directing, Characteristics of Directing, Importance of directing, Principles of Directing, Elements of Direction, Supervision, Motivation, Leadership, Communication, Formal and Informal Communication, Barriers to communication.

  • Chapter 8 Controlling

    Controlling refers to the process of measurement of performance according to standards, measuring deviations and taking corrective action to achieve predetermined goals. In order to seek results, manager must exercise effective control over the workers. Other content of this chapter are meaning of controlling, Importance of controlling, Limitations of controlling, Relationship between planning and controlling, Process of controlling, Techniques of Managerial control- Traditional and Modern Techniques, Responsibility of accounting, Management audit, PERT and CPM.

  • Chapter 9 Financial Management

    Finance, which is so important for business requires proper management in respect to its timely availability, proper management in respect to its timely availability, proper use, with no idle or surplus funds. This all comes under the purview of financial management. Financial management is concerned with optimal procurement as well as usage of finance. It aims at reducing the cost of funds procured, keeping the risk under control and achieving effective deployment of such funds. Other content of this chapter are Meaning of Business Finance, Financial Management, Objectives of Financial Management, Financial Decisions, Investment Decision, Financing Decision, Dividend Decision, Financial Planning, Capital Structure, Fixed and Working Capital and Factors affecting Fixed and Working Capital.

  • Chapter 10 Financial Markets

    A financial market is a market for creation and exchange of financial assets. In an economy, there are two major sectors, viz, households and producers. Households usually save a part of their income to earn returns on it through investment. On the other hand, producers and business firms are in need of finance at all times for conducting business activities. Financial markets and banks help the savers and the investors by mobilizing funds between them. Thus, financial markets and banks act as intermediaries in this allocative function of matching the demand and supply of funds. Other topics covered in this chapter are Meaning of Financial Market, Function of Financial Market, Money Market, Money Market Instruments, Capital Market, Primary Market, Methods of Floatation, Secondary Market, Stock Exchange, Functions of Stock Exchange, Trading and Settlement Procedure, Dematerialisation and Depositories, National Stock Exchange of India, Bombay Stock Exchange and Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).

  • Chapter 11 Marketing

    Traditionally, marketing refers to the performance of business activities that direct the flow of goods and services from producers to consumers. Thus, merchandising, selling and distribution are all parts of a large number of activities undertaken by a firm, collectively called marketing. In the modern sense, marketing refers to a social process, whereby people exchange goods and services for money or for something of value to them. The other topics in this chapter are Meaning or Marketing, Marketing Management, Marketing Management Philosophies, Functions of Marketing, Marketing Mix, Products, Classification of Products, Durability of Products, Industrial Products, Branding, Packaging, Level of Packaging, Functions of Packaging, Labelling, Pricing, Physical Distribution, Components of Physical Distribution, Promotion, Promotion Mix, Advertising, Merits of Advertising, Objections to Advertising, Personal Selling, Sales Promotion, Publicity and Public Relations.

  • Chapter 12 Consumer Protection

    Consumer protection is a very wide term. It includes providing information to the consumers about their rights and responsibilities and helps in getting their grievances redressed. Consumer is treated as the ‘king’ of the market and producers produce goods as per their need and want. The other topics covered in this chapter are Importance of Consumer Protection, Legal Protection to Consumers, The consumer Protection Act, 1986, Consumer Rights, Consumer Responsibility, Ways and Means of Consumer Protection, Redressal Agencies under the Consumer Protection Act and Role of Consumer Organisations and NGOs.

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