Chapter 2 New Kings and Kingdoms

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Exercise 1 ( Page No. : 28 )

  • Q1 Match the following: Gurjara-Pratiharas                   Western Deccan Rashtrakutas                               Bengal Palas                                 Gujarat and Rajasthan Cholas                                      Tamil Nadu

    Gurjara – praitharas                   Gujarat and rajasthan
    Rashtrakutas                                 Western deccan
    Palas                                                    Bengal
    Cholas                                              Tamil nadu

    Q2 Who were the parties involved in the “tripartite struggle”?

    The parties involved in the tripartite strugglewere the rulers belonging to the gujara- pratihara, rashtrakuta and pala dynasties who fought the control over kanauj. Because there were three parties in this long drawn conflict, historians often describe it as the tripartite struggle.

    Q3 What were the qualifications necessary to become a member of a committee of the sabha in the Chola empire?

    The qualifications necessary to become a member
    of the committee of the sabha in the chola empire were as follows:

    - The member had to be an owner of land from which land revenues were collected.
    - He had to have his own home.
    - He had to be between 35 and 70 years of age.
    - He had to have knowledge of the Vedas.
    - He had to be honest and well versed in administrative matters.

    Q4 What were the two major cities under the control of the Chahamanas?

    Two major cities in control of the chahamanas were delhi and ajmer.

    Q5 How did the Rashtrakutas become powerful?

    Rise of power of rajasthan
    - Rashtrakutas were initially subordinate to the chalukyas of Karnataka.
    - In the mid – 8 th century , chief of rashtrakuta dantidurga overthrew his chalukya overlord and performed a ritual called hiranya – garbha which gave him the title of kshatriya even if he was not one by birth.

    - When they gained power and wealth, they declared themselves independent from their overlords. They fought with gurjara – pratihara and pala dynasties fought for control over kanauj to demonstrate their power. This is how they rose to power.

    Q6 What did the new dynasties do to gain acceptance?

    To gain acceptance the new dynasties took on new titles, performed religious rituals like the hiranya garbha which 3would make them part of the kshatriyas, used their military skills engaged in warfare to assert their power and carve kingdoms for themselves .
    - The new dynasties were based in specific regions and existing kings often acknowledged them as their subordinates or samantas.
    - They gained power and wealth do declare themselves maha-samanta, maha mandaleshvara and so on.
    - They asserted their independence from their overloads.
    - They fought war with neighbouring regions to gain power and also buit temple to acknowledge it.

    - They performed rituals do declare themselves to be kshatriya with the help of brahmanas.

    Q7 What kind of irrigation works were developed in the Tamil region?

    The irrigation works developed in the tamil region were as follows:
    - Wells were dug in some areas and tanks were constructed to collect rainwater.
    - Water from the channels of river kaveri provided the necessary moisture for agriculture.
    - Some areas wells were dug and in some places hug tanks were constructed to collect rainwater.
    - Embankments were built to prevent flooding.
    - Canals were constructed to carry water to the fields.
    - Forests were also cleared. The land was leveled, in the delta region embankments were built to prevent flooding and canals were constructed to carry water to the fields.

    Q8 What were the activities associated with Chola temples?

    Chola temples often became the nuclei of settlements which grew around them.

    - Temples were centers of craft production like making bronze images.
    - Temples were also endowed with land by rulers as well as by others.
    - They were not only places of worship but also were the hub of economic social and culture life as well.