- Q:- Give the magnitude and direction of the net force acting on

(a) a drop of rain falling down with a constant speed

(b) a cork of mass 10 g floating on water

(c) a kite skillfully held stationary in the sky

(d) a car moving with a constant velocity of 30 km/h on a rough road

(e) a high-speed electron in space far from all material objects, and free of electric and magnetic fields. - Q:- Explain why (a) The blood pressure in humans is greater at the feet than at the brain (b) Atmospheric pressure at a height of about 6 km decreases to nearly half of its value at the sea level, though the height of the atmosphere is more than 100 km (c) Hydrostatic pressure is a scalar quantity even though pressure is force divided by area.
- Q:-
A steam engine delivers 5.4 x 10

^{8}J of work per minute and services 3.6 x 10^{9 }J of heat per minute from its boiler. What is the efficiency of the engine? How much heat is wasted per minute? - Q:- (a) Two bodies at different temperatures T1 and T2 if brought in thermal contact do not necessarily settle to the mean temperature (T1 +T2)/2. (b) The coolant in a chemical or a nuclear plant (i.e., the liquid used to prevent the different parts of a plant from getting too hot) should have high specific heat. (c) Air pressure in a car tyre increases during driving. (d) The climate of a harbour town is more temperate than that of a town in a desert at the same latitude.
- Q:-
State the number of significant figures in the following:

(a) 0.007 m

^{2}(b) 2.64 x 10

^{24}kg(c) 0.2370 g cm

^{-3}(d) 6.320 J

(e) 6.032 N m

^{-2}(f) 0.0006032 m

^{2} - Q:- A physical quantity P is related to four observables a, b, c and d as follows :
The percentage errors of measurement in a, b, c and d are 1%, 3%, 4% and 2%, respectively. What is the percentage error in the quantity P ? If the value of P calculated using the above relation turns out to be 3.763, to what value should you round off the result ?

">A physical quantity P is related to four observables a, b, c and d as follows :

The percentage errors of measurement in a, b, c and d are 1%, 3%, 4% and 2%, respectively. What is the percentage error in the quantity P ? If the value of P calculated using the above relation turns out to be 3.763, to what value should you round off the result ?

- Q:- Give the magnitude and direction of the net force acting on a stone of mass 0.1 kg,

(a) just after it is dropped from the window of a stationary train,

(b) just after it is dropped from the window of a train running at a constant velocity of 36 km/h,

(c) just after it is dropped from the window of a train accelerating with 1 m s 2,

(d) lying on the floor of a train which is accelerating with 1 m s 2, the stone being at rest relative to the train. Neglect air resistance throughout. - Q:-
What amount of heat must be supplied to 2.0 x 10

^{-2}kg of nitrogen (at room temperature) to raise its temperature by 45 °C at constant pressure? (Molecular mass of N^{2}= 28; R = 8.3 J mol^{-1}K^{-1}.) - Q:-
The driver of a three-wheeler moving with a speed of 36 km/h sees a child standing in the middle of the road and brings his vehicle to rest in 4.0 s just in time to save the child. What is the average retarding force on the vehicle? The mass of the three-wheeler is 400 kg and the mass of the driver is 65 kg.

- Q:- Explain why (or how):

(a) In a sound wave, a displacement node is a pressure antinode and vice versa,

(b) Bats can ascertain distances, directions, nature, and sizes of the obstacles without any eyes,

(c) A violin note and sitar note may have the same frequency, yet we can distinguish between the two notes,

(d) Solids can support both longitudinal and transverse waves, but only longitudinal waves can propagate in gases, and

(e) The shape of a pulse gets distorted during propagation in a dispersive medium.

- Q:-
Ten one-rupee coins are put on top of each other on a table. Each coin has a mass m. Give the magnitude and direction of

(a) the force on the 7

^{th}coin (counted from the bottom) due to all the coins on its top,(b) the force on the 7

^{th}coin by the eighth coin,(c) the reaction of the 6

^{th }coin on the 7^{th}coin. - Q:-
A hospital uses an ultrasonic scanner to locate tumours in a tissue. What is the wavelength of sound in the tissue in which the speed of sound is 1.7 km s

^{-1}? The operating frequency of the scanner is 4.2 MHz. - Q:- A car moving along a straight highway with a speed of 126 km h
^{–1}is brought to a stop within a distance of 200 m. What is the retardation of the car (assumed uniform), and how long does it take for the car to stop?">A car moving along a straight highway with a speed of 126 km h

^{–1}is brought to a stop within a distance of 200 m. What is the retardation of the car (assumed uniform), and how long does it take for the car to stop? - Q:-
Read each statement below carefully and state, with reasons and examples, if it is true or false:

A scalar quantity is one that

(a) is conserved in a process

(b) can never take negative values

(c) must be dimensionless

(d) does not vary from one point to another in space

(e) has the same value for observers with different orientations of axes

- Q:-
From a certain apparatus, the diffusion rate of hydrogen has an average value of 28.7 cm

^{3}s^{-1}. The diffusion of another gas under the same conditions is measured to have an average rate of 7.2 cm^{3}s^{-1}. Identify the gas.[Hint:Use Graham's law of diffusion: R

_{1}/R_{2}= (M_{2}/M_{1})^{1/2}, where R_{1}, R_{2}are diffusion rates of gases 1 and 2, and M_{1}and M_{2 }their respective molecular masses. The law is a simple consequence of kinetic theory.] - Q:- Two stones are thrown up simultaneously from the edge of a cliff 200 m high with initial speeds of 15 m s
^{–1}and 30 m s^{–1}. Verify that the graph shown in Fig. 3.27 correctly represents the time variation of the relative position of the second stone with respect to the first. Neglect air resistance and assume that the stones do not rebound after hitting the ground. Take g = 10 m s^{–2}. Give the equations for the linear and curved parts of the plot. ">Two stones are thrown up simultaneously from the edge of a cliff 200 m high with initial speeds of 15 m s

^{–1}and 30 m s^{–1}. Verify that the graph shown in Fig. 3.27 correctly represents the time variation of the relative position of the second stone with respect to the first. Neglect air resistance and assume that the stones do not rebound after hitting the ground. Take g = 10 m s^{–2}. Give the equations for the linear and curved parts of the plot. - Q:-
A pebble of mass 0.05 kg is thrown vertically upwards. Give the direction and magnitude of the net force on the pebble,

(a) during its upward motion,

(b) during its downward motion,

(c) at the highest point where it is momentarily at rest.

Do your answers change if the pebble was thrown at an angle of 45° with the horizontal direction? Ignore air resistance.

- Q:-
A pipe 20 cm long is closed at one end. Which harmonic mode of the pipe is resonantly excited by a 430 Hz source? Will the same source be in resonance with the pipe if both ends are open? (Speed of sound in air is 340 m s

^{-1}). - Q:-
Which of the following examples represent (nearly) simple harmonic motion and which represent periodic but not simple harmonic motion?

(a) the rotation of earth about its axis.

(b) motion of an oscillating mercury column in a U-tube.

(c) motion of a ball bearing inside a smooth curved bowl, when released from a point slightly above the lower most point.

(d) general vibrations of a polyatomic molecule about its equilibrium position.

- Q:- Figure 3.21 shows the x-t plot of one-dimensional motion of a particle. Is it correct to say from the graph that the particle moves in a straight line for t < 0 and on a parabolic path for t > 0? If not, suggest a suitable physical context for this graph.
">
Figure 3.21 shows the x-t plot of one-dimensional motion of a particle. Is it correct to say from the graph that the particle moves in a straight line for t < 0 and on a parabolic path for t > 0? If not, suggest a suitable physical context for this graph.

- NCERT Chapter

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