This page focuses on the detailed Waves question answers for Class 11 Physics Waves, addressing the question: 'Explain why (or how): (a) In a sound wave, a displacement node is a pressure antinode and vice versa, (b) Bats can ascertain distances, directions, nature, and sizes of the obstacles without any eyes, (c) A violin note and sitar note may have the same frequency, yet we can distinguish between the two notes, (d) Solids can support both longitudinal and transverse waves, but only longitudinal waves can propagate in gases, and (e) The shape of a pulse gets distorted during propagation in a dispersive medium.'. The solution provides a thorough breakdown of the question, highlighting key concepts and approaches to arrive at the correct answer. This easy-to-understand explanation will help students develop better problem-solving skills, reinforcing their understanding of the chapter and aiding in exam preparation.

Question 19

## Explain why (or how):

(a) In a sound wave, a displacement node is a pressure antinode and vice versa,

(b) Bats can ascertain distances, directions, nature, and sizes of the obstacles without any eyes,

(c) A violin note and sitar note may have the same frequency, yet we can distinguish between the two notes,

(d) Solids can support both longitudinal and transverse waves, but only longitudinal waves can propagate in gases, and

(e) The shape of a pulse gets distorted during propagation in a dispersive medium.

(a) In a sound wave, a displacement node is a pressure antinode and vice versa,

(b) Bats can ascertain distances, directions, nature, and sizes of the obstacles without any eyes,

(c) A violin note and sitar note may have the same frequency, yet we can distinguish between the two notes,

(d) Solids can support both longitudinal and transverse waves, but only longitudinal waves can propagate in gases, and

(e) The shape of a pulse gets distorted during propagation in a dispersive medium.

Answer

**(a) **A node is a point where the amplitude of vibration is the minimum and pressure is the maximum. On the other hand, an antinode is a point where the amplitude of vibration is the maximum and pressure is the minimum.

Therefore, a displacement node is nothing but a pressure antinode, and vice versa.

**(b) **Bats emit very high-frequency ultrasonic sound waves. These waves get reflected back toward them by obstacles. A bat receives a reflected wave (frequency) and estimates the distance, direction, nature, and size of an obstacle with the help of its brain senses.

**(c)** The overtones produced by a sitar and a violin, and the strengths of these overtones, are different. Hence, one can distinguish between the notes produced by a sitar and a violin even if they have the same frequency of vibration.

**(d)** Solids have shear modulus. They can sustain shearing stress. Since fluids do not have any definite shape, they yield to shearing stress. The propagation of a transverse wave is such that it produces shearing stress in a medium. The propagation of such a wave is possible only in solids, and not in gases.

Both solids and fluids have their respective bulk moduli. They can sustain compressive stress. Hence, longitudinal waves can propagate through solids and fluids.

**(e)** A pulse is actually is a combination of waves having different wavelengths. These waves travel in a dispersive medium with different velocities, depending on the nature of the medium. This results in the distortion of the shape of a wave pulse.

- Q:-
State the number of significant figures in the following:

(a) 0.007 m

^{2}(b) 2.64 x 10

^{24}kg(c) 0.2370 g cm

^{-3}(d) 6.320 J

(e) 6.032 N m

^{-2}(f) 0.0006032 m

^{2} - Q:-
Fill in the blanks by suitable conversion of units:

(a) 1 kg m

^{2}s^{–2}= ....g cm^{2 }s^{–2 }(b) 1 m =..... ly

(c) 3.0 m s

^{–2}=.... km h^{–2}(d) G = 6.67 × 10

^{–11}N m^{2}(kg)^{–2}=.... (cm)3s^{–2}g^{–1}. - Q:-
A physical quantity P is related to four observables a, b, c and d as follows :

The percentage errors of measurement in a, b, c and d are 1%, 3%, 4% and 2%, respectively. What is the percentage error in the quantity P ? If the value of P calculated using the above relation turns out to be 3.763, to what value should you round off the result ?

- Q:-
Rain is falling vertically with a speed of 30 m s

^{–1}. A woman rides a bicycle with a speed of 10 m s^{–1}in the north to south direction. What is the direction in which she should hold her umbrella? - Q:- Give the magnitude and direction of the net force acting on

(a) a drop of rain falling down with a constant speed

(b) a cork of mass 10 g floating on water

(c) a kite skillfully held stationary in the sky

(d) a car moving with a constant velocity of 30 km/h on a rough road

(e) a high-speed electron in space far from all material objects, and free of electric and magnetic fields. - Q:-
The mass of a box measured by a grocer's balance is 2.300 kg. Two gold pieces of masses 20.15 g and 20.17 g are added to the box. What is

(a) the total mass of the box,

(b) the difference in the masses of the pieces to correct significant figures?

- Q:-
On an open ground, a motorist follows a track that turns to his left by an angle of 60° after every 500 m. Starting from a given turn, specify the displacement of the motorist at the third, sixth and eighth turn. Compare the magnitude of the displacement with the total path length covered by the motorist in each case.

- Q:-
What amount of heat must be supplied to 2.0 x 10

^{-2}kg of nitrogen (at room temperature) to raise its temperature by 45 °C at constant pressure? (Molecular mass of N^{2}= 28; R = 8.3 J mol^{-1}K^{-1}.) - Q:- In which of the following examples of motion, can the body be considered approximately a point object:

(a) a railway carriage moving without jerks between two stations.

(b) a monkey sitting on top of a man cycling smoothly on a circular track.

(c) a spinning cricket ball that turns sharply on hitting the ground.

(d) a tumbling beaker that has slipped off the edge of a table. - Q:-
A transverse harmonic wave on a string is described by

y(x,t) = 3.0 sin [36t + 0.018x + π /4]

Where x and y are in cm and t in s. The positive direction of x is from left to right.

(a) Is this a travelling wave or a stationary wave? If it is travelling, what are the speed and direction of its propagation?

(b) What are its amplitude and frequency?

(c) What is the initial phase at the origin?

(d) What is the least distance between two successive crests in the wave?

- Q:-
A man walks on a straight road from his home to a market 2.5 km away with a speed of 5 km h

^{ –1}. Finding the market closed, he instantly turns and walks back home with a speed of 7.5 km h^{–1}. What is thea) magnitude of average velocity, and

b) average speed of the man over the interval of time (i) 0 to 30 min, (ii) 0 to 50 min, (iii) 0 to 40 min?

[Note: You will appreciate from this exercise why it is better to define average speed as total path length divided by time, and not as magnitude of average velocity. You would not like to tell the tired man on his return home that his average speed was zero!]

- Q:-
A ball is dropped from a height of 90 m on a floor. At each collision with the floor, the ball loses one tenth of its speed. Plot the speed-time graph of its motion between t = 0 to 12 s.

- Q:-
A constant force acting on a body of mass 3.0 kg changes its speed from 2.0 m s

^{–1}to 3.5 m s^{–1}in 25 s. The direction of the motion of the body remains unchanged. What is the magnitude and direction of the force? - Q:-
Fill in the blanks by suitable conversion of units:

(a) 1 kg m

^{2}s^{–2}= ....g cm^{2 }s^{–2 }(b) 1 m =..... ly

(c) 3.0 m s

^{–2}=.... km h^{–2}(d) G = 6.67 × 10

^{–11}N m^{2}(kg)^{–2}=.... (cm)3s^{–2}g^{–1}. - Q:-
A train, standing in a station-yard, blows a whistle of frequency 400 Hz in still air. The wind starts blowing in the direction from the yard to the station with at a speed of 10 m s

^{-1}. What are the frequency, wavelength, and speed of sound for an observer standing on the station's platform? Is the situation exactly identical to the case when the air is still and the observer runs towards the yard at a speed of 10 m s^{-1}? The speed of sound in still air can be taken as 340 m s^{-1}. - Q:-
A car moving along a straight highway with a speed of 126 km h

^{–1}is brought to a stop within a distance of 200 m. What is the retardation of the car (assumed uniform), and how long does it take for the car to stop? - Q:-
A physical quantity P is related to four observables a, b, c and d as follows :

The percentage errors of measurement in a, b, c and d are 1%, 3%, 4% and 2%, respectively. What is the percentage error in the quantity P ? If the value of P calculated using the above relation turns out to be 3.763, to what value should you round off the result ?

- Q:-
Read each statement below carefully and state, with reasons, if it is true or false:

(a) The net acceleration of a particle in circular motion is always along the radius of the circle towards the centre

(b) The velocity vector of a particle at a point is always along the tangent to the path of the particle at that point

(c) The acceleration vector of a particle in uniform circular motion averaged over one cycle is a null vector

- Q:-
For any arbitrary motion in space, which of the following relations are true :

(a) v

_{average}= (1/2) (v (t_{1}) + v (t_{2}))(b) v

_{average}= [r(t_{2}) - r(t_{1}) ] / (t_{2}– t_{1})(c) v

_{(t) }= v (0) + a t(d) r

_{(t)}= r (0) + v (0) t + (1/2) a t^{2}(e) a

_{average}=[ v (t_{2}) - v (t_{1})] /( t_{2}– t_{1})(The ‘average’ stands for average of the quantity over the time interval t

_{1}to t_{2}) - Q:-
A drunkard walking in a narrow lane takes 5 steps forward and 3 steps backward, followed again by 5 steps forward and 3 steps backward, and so on. Each step is 1 m long and requires 1 s. Plot the x-t graph of his motion. Determine graphically and otherwise how long the drunkard takes to fall in a pit 13 m away from the start.

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2019-02-12 01:59:58

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