This page focuses on the detailed Laws of Motion question answers for Class 11 Physics Laws of Motion, addressing the question: 'A pebble of mass 0.05 kg is thrown vertically upwards. Give the direction and magnitude of the net force on the pebble,
(a) during its upward motion,
(b) during its downward motion,
(c) at the highest point where it is momentarily at rest.
Do your answers change if the pebble was thrown at an angle of 45° with the horizontal direction? Ignore air resistance.'. The solution provides a thorough breakdown of the question, highlighting key concepts and approaches to arrive at the correct answer. This easy-to-understand explanation will help students develop better problem-solving skills, reinforcing their understanding of the chapter and aiding in exam preparation.

Question 2

A pebble of mass 0.05 kg is thrown vertically upwards. Give the direction and magnitude of the net force on the pebble,

(a) during its upward motion,

(b) during its downward motion,

(c) at the highest point where it is momentarily at rest.

Do your answers change if the pebble was thrown at an angle of 45° with the horizontal direction? Ignore air resistance.

Answer

0.5 N, in vertically downward direction, in all cases

Acceleration due to gravity, irrespective of the direction of motion of an object, always acts downward. The gravitational force is the only force that acts on the pebble in all three cases. Its magnitude is given by Newton's second law of motion as:

*F* = *m x a*

Where,

*F *= Net force

*m*= Mass of the pebble = 0.05 kg

*a =* g = 10 m/s^{2}

∴*F* = 0.05 x 10 = 0.5 N

The net force on the pebble in all three cases is 0.5 N and this force acts in the downward direction.

If the pebble is thrown at an angle of 45° with the horizontal, it will have both the horizontal and vertical components of velocity. At the highest point, only the vertical component of velocity becomes zero. However, the pebble will have the horizontal component of velocity throughout its motion. This component of velocity produces no effect on the net force acting on the pebble.

- Q:-
State the number of significant figures in the following:

(a) 0.007 m

^{2}(b) 2.64 x 10

^{24}kg(c) 0.2370 g cm

^{-3}(d) 6.320 J

(e) 6.032 N m

^{-2}(f) 0.0006032 m

^{2} - Q:-
Fill in the blanks by suitable conversion of units:

(a) 1 kg m

^{2}s^{–2}= ....g cm^{2 }s^{–2 }(b) 1 m =..... ly

(c) 3.0 m s

^{–2}=.... km h^{–2}(d) G = 6.67 × 10

^{–11}N m^{2}(kg)^{–2}=.... (cm)3s^{–2}g^{–1}. - Q:-
A physical quantity P is related to four observables a, b, c and d as follows :

The percentage errors of measurement in a, b, c and d are 1%, 3%, 4% and 2%, respectively. What is the percentage error in the quantity P ? If the value of P calculated using the above relation turns out to be 3.763, to what value should you round off the result ?

- Q:-
Rain is falling vertically with a speed of 30 m s

^{–1}. A woman rides a bicycle with a speed of 10 m s^{–1}in the north to south direction. What is the direction in which she should hold her umbrella? - Q:- Give the magnitude and direction of the net force acting on

(a) a drop of rain falling down with a constant speed

(b) a cork of mass 10 g floating on water

(c) a kite skillfully held stationary in the sky

(d) a car moving with a constant velocity of 30 km/h on a rough road

(e) a high-speed electron in space far from all material objects, and free of electric and magnetic fields. - Q:-
The mass of a box measured by a grocer's balance is 2.300 kg. Two gold pieces of masses 20.15 g and 20.17 g are added to the box. What is

(a) the total mass of the box,

(b) the difference in the masses of the pieces to correct significant figures?

- Q:-
On an open ground, a motorist follows a track that turns to his left by an angle of 60° after every 500 m. Starting from a given turn, specify the displacement of the motorist at the third, sixth and eighth turn. Compare the magnitude of the displacement with the total path length covered by the motorist in each case.

- Q:-
What amount of heat must be supplied to 2.0 x 10

^{-2}kg of nitrogen (at room temperature) to raise its temperature by 45 °C at constant pressure? (Molecular mass of N^{2}= 28; R = 8.3 J mol^{-1}K^{-1}.) - Q:- In which of the following examples of motion, can the body be considered approximately a point object:

(a) a railway carriage moving without jerks between two stations.

(b) a monkey sitting on top of a man cycling smoothly on a circular track.

(c) a spinning cricket ball that turns sharply on hitting the ground.

(d) a tumbling beaker that has slipped off the edge of a table. - Q:-
A transverse harmonic wave on a string is described by

y(x,t) = 3.0 sin [36t + 0.018x + π /4]

Where x and y are in cm and t in s. The positive direction of x is from left to right.

(a) Is this a travelling wave or a stationary wave? If it is travelling, what are the speed and direction of its propagation?

(b) What are its amplitude and frequency?

(c) What is the initial phase at the origin?

(d) What is the least distance between two successive crests in the wave?

- Q:-
Which of the following examples represent (nearly) simple harmonic motion and which represent periodic but not simple harmonic motion?

(a) the rotation of earth about its axis.

(b) motion of an oscillating mercury column in a U-tube.

(c) motion of a ball bearing inside a smooth curved bowl, when released from a point slightly above the lower most point.

(d) general vibrations of a polyatomic molecule about its equilibrium position.

- Q:-
You have learnt that a travelling wave in one dimension is represented by a function y = f (x, t) where x and t must appear in the combination x - v t or x + v t, i.e. y = f (x ± v t). Is the converse true? Examine if the following functions for y can possibly represent a travelling wave:

(a) ( x - v t )

^{2}(b) log [ x + vt / x

_{0}](c) 1 / (x + vt)

- Q:-
A spring having with a spring constant 1200 N m-1 is mounted on a horizontal table as shown in Fig. A mass of 3 kg is attached to the free end of the spring. The mass is then pulled sideways to a distance of 2.0 cm and released.

Determine (i) the frequency of oscillations, (ii) maximum acceleration of the mass, and (iii) the maximum speed of the mass.

- Q:-
Estimate the average thermal energy of a helium atom at

(i) room temperature (27 °C),

(ii) the temperature on the surface of the Sun (6000 K),

(iii) the temperature of 10 million Kelvin (the typical core temperature in the case of a star).

- Q:-
A great physicist of this century (P.A.M. Dirac) loved playing with numerical values of Fundamental constants of nature. This led him to an interesting observation. Dirac found that from the basic constants of atomic physics (c, e, mass of electron, mass of proton) and the gravitational constant G, he could arrive at a number with the dimension of time. Further, it was a very large number, its magnitude being close to the present estimate on the age of the universe (~15 billion years). From the table of fundamental constants in this book, try to see if you too can construct this number (or any other interesting number you can think of). If its coincidence with the age of the universe were significant, what would this imply for the constancy of fundamental constants?

- Q:-
A calorie is a unit of heat or energy and it equals about 4.2 J where 1J = 1 kg m

^{2}s^{–2}. Suppose we employ a system of units in which the unit of mass equals α kg, the unit of length equals β m, the unit of time is γ s. Show that a calorie has a magnitude 4.2 α^{–1}β^{– 2}γ^{2}in terms of the new units. - Q:-
A person trying to lose weight (dieter) lifts a 10 kg mass, one thousand times, to a height of 0.5 m each time. Assume that the potential energy lost each time she lowers the mass is dissipated. (a) How much work does she do against the gravitational force? (b) Fat supplies 3.8 x 10

^{7}J of energy per kilogram which is converted to mechanical energy with a 20% efficiency rate. How much fat will the dieter use up? - Q:-
What amount of heat must be supplied to 2.0 x 10

^{-2}kg of nitrogen (at room temperature) to raise its temperature by 45 °C at constant pressure? (Molecular mass of N^{2}= 28; R = 8.3 J mol^{-1}K^{-1}.) - Q:-
In Exercise 14.9, let us take the position of mass when the spring is unstreched as x = 0, and the direction from left to right as the positive direction of x-axis. Give x as a function of time t for the oscillating mass if at the moment we start the stopwatch (t = 0), the mass is

(a) at the mean position,

(b) at the maximum stretched position, and

(c) at the maximum compressed position.

In what way do these functions for SHM differ from each other, in frequency, in amplitude or the initial phase?

- Q:-
Use the formula

**v =**√γP/ρto explain why the speed of sound in air (a) is independent of pressure, (b) increases with temperature, (c) increases with humidity.

- NCERT Chapter