NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 chemistry covers all the questions given in the NCERT book. You can study and download these question and their solutions free from this page. These solutions are solved by our specialists at, that will assist all the students of respective boards, including CBSE, who follows NCERT; with tackling all the questions easily. We give chapter wise complete solutions for your straightforwardness.

  • Chapter 1 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

    From this chapter, you will understand the role of chemistry in different spheres of life. You will also understand characteristics of three states of matter. You can also classify substances into elements,compounds and mixtures. You can explain various laws of chemical combination along with description of mole and molar mass.You will also be able to determine empirical formula and molecular formula for a compound from the given experimental data.

  • Chapter 2 Structure of Atom

    In this chapter, you will know about the discovery of electrons, protons and neutrons alongwith their characteristics. This chapter also contains the description of Thomson,Rutherford and Bohr atomic model. Through this chapter you will also understand the important features of the quantum mechanical model of atoms. You will also understand the nature of electromagnetic radiation and Planck's quantum theory. It also explains the photoelectric effect and describes features of atomic spectra. It also states the de Broglie relation and Heisenberg uncertainty principle. It also defines an atomic orbital in terms of quantum numbers. The chapter also states aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity and writes the electronic configurations of atoms.

  • Chapter 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

    From this chapter, you will be able to appreciate the concept of grouping elements in accordance to their properties led to the development of the Periodic Table. You can also understand the Periodic Table and the significance of atomic number and electronic configuration. You can also name the elements according to IUPAC nomenclature and classify elements into s, p, d, f blocks. You will also be able to recognise the periodic trends in physical and chemical properties of elements. You can also compare the reactivity of elements and correlate it with their occurrence in nature. You can also explain the relationship between ionization enthalpy and metallic character.Use of scientific vocabulary appropriately to communicate ideas related to certain important properties of atoms are also known.

  • Chapter 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

    Through this chapter, you can understand Kossel-Lewis approach to chemical Bonding. You can also explain the octet rule and its limitations, draw Lewis structures of simple molecules and the formation of different types of bonds. You will also be able to describe the VSEPR theory and predict the geometry of simple molecules. You can also explain the valence bond approach for the formation of covalent bonds. You can also predict the directional properties of covalent bonds and explain the concept of hydrogen bond. Description of molecular orbital theory of homo-nuclear diatomic molecules is also given. Explanation of different types of hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals is also given.

  • Chapter 5 States of Matter

    This chapter explains about the existence of different states of matter in terms of balance between intermolecular forces and thermal energy of particles .The chapter also explains the laws governing behaviour of ideal gases along with their application in various real life situations. It also explains the behaviour of real gases along with the conditions required for real gases. It also provides the difference between gaseous state and vapours. It also explains properties of liquids in terms of intermolecular attractions.

  • Chapter 6 Thermodynamics

    This chapter explains the terms - system and surroundings. It also helps in discriminating between close, open and isolated systems. It also gives explanation about internal energy, work and heat. It also states first law of thermodynamics and express it mathematically. Calculation of energy changes as work and heat contributions in chemical systems are also carried out. It also explains state functions - U, H along with their correlation and experimental measures. Calculation of enthalpy changes for various types of reactions can also be carried out. It also states Hess's law of constant heat summation along with its application. It also helps in differentiating between extensive and intensive properties. Definition of spontaneous and non -spontaneous processes are also given. Explanation of entropy as a thermodynamic state function and its application for spontaneity is also given. It also explains Gibbs energy change and establishes relationship between Gibbs energy change and spontaneity.    

  • Chapter 7 Equilibrium

    From this chapter, you will learn about the identification of the dynamic nature of equilibrium involved in physical and chemical processes along with the characteristics of equilibria. It also states the law of equilibrium. You will also learn about the expression for equilibrium constants and will also be able to establish relationships between them. It also gives explanations about various factors that affect the equilibrium state of reaction. It also gives classification of acids and bases as weak or strong in terms of their ionization constants. It also provides an explanation of dependence of degree of ionization on concentration of the electrolyte and that of the common ion. Description of pH scale for representing hydrogen ion concentration is also given. Explanation of ionization of water and its dual role as acid and base is also given. Description of ionic product and calculation of solubility product constant is also mentioned.

  • Chapter 8 Redox Reactions

    From this chapter, you will be able to identify redox reactions as a class of reactions in which oxidation and reduction reactions occur simultaneously. It also defines the terms oxidation, reduction, oxidant (oxidising agent) and reductant (reducing agent). It also explains the mechanism of redox reactions by the electron transfer process. It also uses the concept of oxidation number to identify oxidant and reductant in a reaction. It also classifies redox reaction into combination (synthesis), decomposition, displacement and disproportionation reactions. It also suggests a comparative order among various reductants and oxidants. It balances chemical equations using (i) oxidation number (ii) half reaction method. You will also learn the concept of redox reactions in terms of electrode processes.

  • Chapter 9 Hydrogen

    From this chapter, you will be able to present informed opinions on the position of hydrogen in the periodic table. You can also identify the modes of occurrence and preparation of dihydrogen on a small and commercial scale. Description of isotopes of hydrogen and how different elements combine with hydrogen to form ionic, molecular and non stoichiometric compounds. You will also be able to understand the structure of water and use the knowledge for explaining physical and chemical properties.Explanation of how environmental water quality depends on a variety of dissolved substances and difference between hard and soft water is also given.You will also acquire the knowledge about heavy water and its importance. You will also understand the structure of hydrogen peroxide,learn its preparatory methods and properties leading to the manufacture of useful chemicals and cleaning of the environment. You will also understand the use of certain terms like electron-deficient, electron-precise, electron-rich, hydrogen economy, hydrogenation etc.

  • Chapter 10 The s Block Elements

    In this chapter, a description of general characteristics of the alkali metals and their compounds is given. It also explains the general characteristics of the alkaline earth metals and their compounds. It also gives description of the manufacture, properties and uses of industrially important sodium and calcium compounds including Portland cement. It also appreciates the biological significance of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium.

  • Chapter 11 The p Block Elements

    From this chapter, you will be able to appreciate the general trends in the chemistry of p-block elements. Description of the trends in physical and chemical properties of group 13 and 14 elements is given. Explanation of anomalous behaviour of boron and carbon along with its allotropic forms is also given. You will be able to know the chemistry of some important compounds of boron, carbon and silicon. The list of important uses of group 13 and 14 elements and their compounds.

  • Chapter 12 Organic Chemistry Some Basic Principles and Techniques

    From this chapter, you will be able to understand reasons for tetravalence of carbon and shapes of organic molecules. You can also write structures of organic molecules in various ways alongwith classification of organic compounds. You can also name the compounds according to IUPAC systems of nomenclature and also derive their structures from the given names. You can also understand the concept of organic reaction mechanism. You can also explain the influence of electronic displacements on structure and reactivity of organic compounds. You can also recognise the types of organic reactions and learn the techniques of purification of organic compounds. You can also write the chemical reactions involved in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic compounds.

  • Chapter 13 Hydrocarbons

    From this chapter, you will be able to name hydrocarbons according to the IUPAC system of nomenclature. You can also recognise and write structures of isomers of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and aromatic hydrocarbons. You can also learn about various methods of preparation of hydrocarbons. You can also distinguish between alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and aromatic hydrocarbons on the basis of physical and chemical properties. You can also draw and differentiate between various conformations of ethane. You can also appreciate the role of hydrocarbons as sources of energy and for other industrial applications. You can also predict the formation of the additional products or unsymmetrical alkenes and alkynes on the basis of electronic mechanism. You can also comprehend the structure of benzene, explain aromaticity and understand the mechanism of electrophilic substitution reactions of benzene. You can also predict the directive influence of substituents in monosubstituted benzene rings. You can also learn about carcinogenicity and toxicity.

  • Chapter 14 Environmental Chemistry

    From this chapter, you will be able to understand the meaning of environmental chemistry. You can also define atmospheric pollution, list reasons for global warming, greenhouse effect and acid rain. You can also identify causes for ozone layer depletion and its effects. You can also give reasons for water pollution and know about international standards for drinking water. You can also describe causes of soil pollution. You can also suggest and adopt strategies for control of environmental pollution. You can also appreciate the importance of green chemistry in day to day life.

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