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NCERT Solutions for Class 12th chemistry

NCERT Solutions for Class 12th chemistry covers all the questions given in the NCERT book. You can study and download these question and their solutions free from this page. These solutions are solved by our specialists at SaralStudy.com, that will assist all the students of respective boards, including CBSE, who follows NCERT; with tackling all the questions easily. We give chapter wise complete solutions for your straightforwardness.

  • Chapter 1 The Solid State

    Solids have fixed positions and can oscillate about their mean position. Crystalline solids are arranged in regular pattern charistic properties of solid state are (i) have definite shape, mass (ii) Intermolecular distance are short (iii) Intermolecular forces are strong (iv) Incompressible & rigid. Crystalline solids are classified as molecular, iconic, metallic and covalent solids. They differ in their properties particles in crystalline solid are around us in a regular pattern. Arrangement is formed by a three dimensional array of points which is known as crystal lattice. Lattice can be generated by small characteristics which are known as unit cells. Different types of lattice are possible called bravais lattice. Unit cells can be primitive, face centred, body centred.

  • Chapter 2 Solutions

    In our day to day life we rarely come across pure substances. Most of these contain homogenous mixtures of two or more pure substances. During summer after returning home from work it feels refreshing to have a glass lemon juice. What is it actually? It is nothing but a mixture of salt, sugar, lemon juice in water. It is a solution. A solution is a homogenous mixture of two or more components. The component present in larger quantity is referred to as solvent and the components present in smaller quantity is referred to as solute. In this chapter we will study different types of solutions, liquid solution, properties of the solutions and various alternatives in which concentrations of a solute can be expressed in solution.

  • Chapter 3 Electrochemistry

    Electrochemistry deals with the study of production of electricity from chemical energy produced in a chemical reaction and the use of electrical energy to bring about non spontaneous chemical transformations. Both the theoretical and practical considerations of this chapter are important. We will also study different electrochemical methods from which a large number of metals, like and many other chemicals can be produced. The electrochemical process is used in batteries as well as fuel cells which convert chemical energy into electrical energy and are used in various instruments and devices. The reactions carried out through this process are less polluting and energy efficient.

  • Chapter 4 Chemical Kinetics

    Chemical kinetics is that branch of chemistry which deals with the study of rates of chemical reactions, the factors affecting the rates of reactions and the mechanisms of reactions. This chapter helps us to determine the speed or rate of a chemical reaction and also describe the conditions by which the reaction rates can be altered. In this chapter we shall be dealing with the average and instantaneous rate of reaction, the factors such as temperature, pressure, concentration and catalyst which affect the rates of reactions. Further to explain the mechanism of reaches at the molecular level, we shall discuss a theory involving orientation and energy of molecules undergoing collisions, called collision theory of reaction rates.

  • Chapter 5 Surface Chemistry

    Surface chemistry is that branch of chemistry which deals with the study of phenomena occurring at the surfaces or interfaces. The surface or interface is represented by pulling a hyphen or slash between the two bulk phases involved i.e. liquid-liquid, solid-solid or liquid/solid, solid/liquid etc. Gases are completely miscible so there is no interface between gases. The two bulk phases may be pure compounds or solutions.

  • Chapter 6 General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

    Elements are the basic unit of all types of matter in this universe. Some of the elements occur in free state while some in combined state in the earth's crust. In this unit we will be studying about extraction, concentration, isolation and purification of the elements/metals and the various steps and principles involved in these processes.

  • Chapter 7 The p-Block Elements

    In class XI, we have learnt that the elements of group 13-18 are p-block elements. The properties of p-block elements like that of other elements are also greatly influenced by variation in their atomic sizes ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy and electronegativity. The absence of d-orbitals in the second period and presence of d or d and orbitals in heavier elements have significant effects on the properties elements. The p-block elements can include metals metalloids or non-metals. The presence of these three types of elements lead to the diversification in their chemistry. As we have learnt/discussed the chemistry of elements of group 13 and 14 of the p-block in class Xl, we will learn/ discuss the chemistry of group 15-18 in this unit.

  • Chapter 8 The d-and f-Block Elements

    The name transition metals and inner transition metals are often used to infer as d- and f- block the name transition is given because it lies between s and p block. Generally electronic configuration of these elements are given as (n-1)d ns 1-2.

  • Chapter 9 Coordination Compounds

    In unit 8, we have already learnt that the transition metals have one of the important ability to form complex compounds in which the metal atoms are bound to a no. of ions or neutral molecules by coordinate bonds. Such compounds are now called coordinate compounds. This property is not only restricted to transition elements but also exhibited by certain other elements though to a small extent (i.g. haemoglobin is a coordination compound of iron). Coordination compounds find many users in metallurgical processes, industrial catalysis, analytical reagents In this unit we will study different aspects of coordination compounds, including their applications.

  • Chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Chapter 11 Alcohols Phenols and Ethers
  • Chapter 12 Aldehydes Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Chapter 13 Amines
  • Chapter 14 Biomolecules

    The most noticeable characteristic of a living system is that it grows, sustains and reproduces itself. Another most amazing fact about the living system is that it is composed of non-living atoms and molecules. The various changes in the living system chemically fall in the domain of biochemistry. The living systems are made up of various organic compounds called biomolecules. And the various biomolecules are carbohydrates, proteins lipids, enzymes, nucleic acids, hormones etc. These biomolecules interact with each other and constitute the living system. In addition some simple molecules like vitamins and mineral salts also play an important role in the functions of organisms. We will briefly discuss the structures and functions of some of these biomolecules.

  • Chapter 15 Polymers

    Polymers are referred to as macromolecules, which are formed by joining or repeating structural units on a large scale. The simple and reactive molecules from which their repeating structural units are derived are called monomers. Polymers are the backbone of modern civilization. The use of polymers on the manufacture of plastic buckets, cups and saucers, toys, packaging bags, synthetic clothing materials, and machine parts, automobile tyres gears and seals, and electrical insulation materials has completely revolutionised daily life as well as the industrial scenario. In fact, polymers are the backbone of four major chemical industries, viz., plastics elastomers, fibers and paints and varnishes dome of the important aspects of the chemistry of polymers will be discussed in this unit.

  • Chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life

    By now, we have understood that of all the sciences, chemistry in general and organic chemistry, in particular has played a vital role in influencing the quality of human life. Most of the substances which we are in our daily life are chemical substances. For instance, think of the substances we use for cleanliness, like roops, detergents, tooth pastes, household bleaches, etc. similarly think of the clothes we used to wear and dyes or chemicals which are used to colour them are also made up of various chemical compounds. Even the food materials we eat consist of organic compounds, likewise, the medicine we take to protect ourselves from various types of diseases and ailments are also made up of chemical compounds. Similarly, explosives, fuels, building and electronic materials, rocket propellants, etc., are all made up of chemicals. Chemistry has influenced our life so much that we don't even realise that in our daily life we come across chemicals at every moment. Even we humans are beautiful chemical creations, and our functions are also controlled by chemicals. In this unit we will discuss the application of chemistry in these important and interesting areas such as medicines, food materials and cleansing agents.

Popular Questions of Class 12th chemistry