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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 chemistry covers all the questions given in the NCERT book. You can study and download these question and their solutions free from this page. These solutions are solved by our specialists at SaralStudy.com, that will assist all the students of respective boards, including CBSE, who follows NCERT; with tackling all the questions easily. We give chapter wise complete solutions for your straightforwardness.

  • Chapter 1 The Solid State

    From this chapter, you will be able to describe general characteristics of solid state. You will also be able to distinguish between amorphous and crystalline solids along with their classification on the basis of the nature of binding forces. Definition of crystal lattice and unit cell is also given. Close packing of particles is also explained. Description of different types of voids and close packed structures is also given. You will also be able to calculate the packing efficiency of different types of cubic unit cells. Correlation of the density of a substance with its unit cell properties is also given. Description of the imperfections in solids and their effect on properties is also given. Correlation of the electrical and magnetic properties of solids and their structures is also done.

  • Chapter 2 Solutions

    In our day to day life, we rarely come across pure substances. Most of these contain homogenous mixtures of two or more pure substances. During summer after returning home from work it feels refreshing to have a glass of lemon juice. What is it actually? It is nothing but a mixture of salt, sugar, lemon juice in water. It is a solution. A solution is a homogenous mixture of two or more components. The component present in larger quantity is referred to as solvent and the components present in smaller quantity is referred to as solute. In this chapter we will study different types of solutions, liquid solution, properties of the solutions and various alternatives in which concentrations of a solute can be expressed in solution. You will also be able to distinguish between ideal and non-ideal solutions. Explanations of Henry's law and Raoult's law are also given.

  • Chapter 3 Electrochemistry

    Electrochemistry deals with the study of production of electricity from chemical energy produced in a chemical reaction and the use of electrical energy to bring out non spontaneous chemical transformations. Description of electrochemical cells and difference between galvanic and electrolytic cells is also given. Application of Nernst equation for calculating the emf of galvanic cells is also given. Derivation of relation between standard potential of cell, Gibbs energy of cell reaction and its equilibrium constant is also carried out. Definition of resistivity, conductivity and molar conductivity of ionic solutions is also given. Difference between ionic and electronic conductivity is also done along with its method of measurement. Justification of variation of conductivity and molar conductivity of solutions with change in their concentration is also given.

  • Chapter 4 Chemical Kinetics

    Chemical kinetics is that branch of chemistry which deals with the study of the rate of chemical reaction. In this chapter, you will be dealing with the average and instantaneous rate of reaction, the factors such as temperature, pressure, concentration and catalyst which affect the rate of reactions. Differences between elementary and complex reactions are also given. Differences between molecularity and order of a reaction are also given. Description of collision theory and derivation of integrated rate of equations for the zero and first order reactions along- with determination of its rate constants.

  • Chapter 5 Surface Chemistry

    Surface chemistry is that branch of chemistry which deals with the study of phenomena occurring at the surfaces or interfaces. The surface or interface is represented by pulling a hyphen or slash between the two bulk phases involved i.e. liquid-liquid, solid-solid or liquid/solid, solid/liquid etc. Definition and mechanism of adsorption alongwith its classification into physical and chemical adsorption. Enumeration of the nature of colloidal state along with the preparation, properties, purification and uses of colloids are also given.

  • Chapter 6 General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

    Elements are the basic unit of all types of matter in this universe. Some of the elements occur in free state while some in combined state in the earth's crust. In this chapter, you will be studying about minerals and ores, concentration, benefaction, calcination, roasting and refining etc. You will also understand the principles of oxidation and reduction as applied to the extraction procedures.

  • Chapter 7 The p-Block Elements

    From this chapter, you will be able to appreciate general trends in the chemistry of elements of groups 15-18. You will also be able to learn the preparation, properties and uses of dinitrogen, phosphorus, dioxygen, ozone and some of their important compounds. You will also be able to know allotropic forms of sulphur and its important compounds along with the structures of its oxoacids. Description of the preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid alongwith the structures of oxoacids of halogens.

  • Chapter 8 The d-and f-Block Elements

    The name transition metals and inner transition metals are often used to infer as d- and f- block elements, the name transition is given because it lies between s and p block. In this chapter, you will be able to know electronic configurations and general characteristics of d- and f- block elements. Description of the preparation, properties, structures and uses of some important compounds is also given. Description of the properties of the f-block elements and a comparative account of the lanthanoids and actinoids with respect to their electronic configurations, oxidation states and chemical behaviour.

  • Chapter 9 Coordination Compounds

    Transition metals have one of the important abilities to form complex compounds in which the metal atoms are bound to a number of ions or neutral molecules by coordinate bonds. Such compounds are called coordinate compounds. In this unit, you will study different aspects of coordination compounds including their nomenclature and applications. You will also appreciate the postulates of Werner's theory of coordination compounds. You will also be able to understand the nature of bonding in coordination compounds in terms of the Valence Bond and Crystal Field theories.

  • Chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

    From this chapter, you will be able to name haloalkanes and haloarenes according to the IUPAC system of nomenclature from their given structures. Description of the reactions involved in the preparation of haloalkanes, haloarenes and understand various reactions that they go through. Correlation of the structures of haloalkanes and haloarenes with various types of reactions is also given. Use of stereochemistry as a tool for understanding the reaction mechanism. Highlighting the environmental effects of polyhalogen compounds.

  • Chapter 11 Alcohols Phenols and Ethers

    From this chapter, you will be able to name alcohols, phenols and ethers according to the IUPAC system of nomenclature. Discuss the reactions involved in the preparation of alcohols from alkenes, aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids. Discuss the reactions involved in the preparation of phenols from Haloarenes, benzene, sulphonic acids, diazonium salts and cumene. Discuss the reactions for preparation of ethers from alcohols, alkyl halides and sodium all oxides/aryloxides. Correlation of physical properties of alcohols, phenols and ethers with their structures are also given.

  • Chapter 12 Aldehydes Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

    From this chapter, you will be able to write the common and IUPAC names of aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids. You will also be able to write the structures of the compounds containing functional groups namely carbonyl and carboxyl groups. Description of the important methods of preparation and reactions of these classes of compounds.  Correlation of physical properties and chemical reactions of aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids with their structures. Explanation of mechanism of a few selected reactions of aldehydes and ketones are also given. You will also be able to understand various factors affecting the acidity of carboxylic acids and their reactions. Description of the uses of aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids are also given.

  • Chapter 13 Amines

    From this chapter, you will be able to describe amines as derivatives of ammonia having a pyramidal structure. Classification and differences of amines as primary, secondary and tertiary. Naming of amines by common names and IUPAC system. Description of some of the important methods of preparation of amines, diazonium salts and their importance in the synthesis of a series of aromatic compounds including azo dyes.

  • Chapter 14 Biomolecules

    The most noticeable characteristic of a living system is that it grows, sustains and reproduces itself. Another most amazing fact about the living system is that it is composed of non-living atoms and molecules. The living systems are made up of various organic compounds called biomolecules. The various biomolecules are carbohydrates, proteins lipids, enzymes, nucleic acids, hormones etc. Differences between DNA and RNA are also established.

  • Chapter 15 Polymers

    Polymers are referred to as macromolecules, which are formed by joining or repeating structural units on a large scale. From this chapter, you will also be able to explain the terms - monomer, polymer and polymerization. Differences between various classes of polymers and different types of polymerization processes are also established. Description of the preparation of some important synthetic polymers and their properties. You will also be able to appreciate the formation of polymers from mono- and bi- functional monomer molecules.

  • Chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life

    Chemistry has influenced our life so much that we don't even realize that in our daily life we come across chemicals at every moment. In this unit, we will discuss the application of chemistry in these important areas such as medicines, food materials and cleansing agents. We will also be able to explain term chemotherapy, drug-target interaction of enzymes and receptors and how various types of drugs function in the body. We will also be able to know about artificial sweetening agents and food preservatives.

Popular Questions of Class 12 Chemistry