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Question 2

Justify the following statements on the basis of external features (i) Underground parts of a plant are not always roots (ii) Flower is a modified shoot


(i) Various parts of plants are modified into underground structures to perform various functions such as stems, leaves, and even fruits.

The stems in ginger and banana are underground and swollen due to storage of food. They are called rhizomes. Similarly, corm is an underground stem in Colocasia and Zamin-khand. The tips of the underground stem in potato become swollen due to the accumulation of food and forms tuber. Tubers bear eyes, which are subtended by a leaf scar. Basal leaves in onions become fleshy because of the accumulation of food. In peanuts, the flower after fertilization gets pushed inside the soil by growing a flower stalk. The formation of fruits and seeds takes place inside the soil.

(ii) During the flowering season, the apical meristem gives rise to the floral meristem. The axis of the stem gets condensed, while the internodes lie near each other. Instead of leaves, various floral appendages arise from the node. Therefore, it can be said that the flower is a modified shoot.

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