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Question 5

China’s rapid industrial growth can be traced back to its reforms in 1978. Do you agree? Elucidate.

Answer

Yes, it cannot be denied that China's rapid industrial growth is an aggregate outcome of the various economic reforms that were introduced in phases since 1978. In the initial phase, reforms were initiated in agriculture, foreign trade and investment sectors. The system of collective farming known as Commune System was implemented. Under this system, land was divided into small plots that were allocated to the individual households. These households were allowed to keep the remaining income from land after paying the taxes to the government. In the later phase, reforms were initiated in the industrial sector. During this phase, the private firms and village and township enterprises were allowed to produce goods and services and to compete with the State Owned Enterprises. The reforms also included dual pricing. The dual pricing implies that the farmers and the industrial units were required to buy and sell a fixed quantity of inputs and output at the price fixed by the government and the remaining quantities were traded at the market price. Gradually, with the rapid increase in the aggregate production in the later years, the quantities traded in the market increased by many folds. The reforms also included setting up of Special Economic Zones to attract foreign investors. Therefore, China's rapid industrial growth is attributable to the success of different phases of its economic reforms.

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