Welcome to the complete NCERT solutions for Class 11 Physics Chapter : . In this section, we provide detailed, easy-to-understand solutions for all the questions from this chapter. Whether you're preparing for exams or seeking a deeper understanding of the subject, these question answers will offer you valuable insights and explanations. Each solution is crafted to ensure conceptual clarity and step-by-step problem-solving methods, enabling students to grasp the core themes and excel in their academics.

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- Q:-
State the number of significant figures in the following:

(a) 0.007 m

^{2}(b) 2.64 x 10

^{24}kg(c) 0.2370 g cm

^{-3}(d) 6.320 J

(e) 6.032 N m

^{-2}(f) 0.0006032 m

^{2} - Q:-
Fill in the blanks by suitable conversion of units:

(a) 1 kg m

^{2}s^{–2}= ....g cm^{2 }s^{–2 }(b) 1 m =..... ly

(c) 3.0 m s

^{–2}=.... km h^{–2}(d) G = 6.67 × 10

^{–11}N m^{2}(kg)^{–2}=.... (cm)3s^{–2}g^{–1}. - Q:-
A physical quantity P is related to four observables a, b, c and d as follows :

The percentage errors of measurement in a, b, c and d are 1%, 3%, 4% and 2%, respectively. What is the percentage error in the quantity P ? If the value of P calculated using the above relation turns out to be 3.763, to what value should you round off the result ?

- Q:-
Rain is falling vertically with a speed of 30 m s

^{–1}. A woman rides a bicycle with a speed of 10 m s^{–1}in the north to south direction. What is the direction in which she should hold her umbrella? - Q:- Give the magnitude and direction of the net force acting on

(a) a drop of rain falling down with a constant speed

(b) a cork of mass 10 g floating on water

(c) a kite skillfully held stationary in the sky

(d) a car moving with a constant velocity of 30 km/h on a rough road

(e) a high-speed electron in space far from all material objects, and free of electric and magnetic fields. - Q:-
The mass of a box measured by a grocer's balance is 2.300 kg. Two gold pieces of masses 20.15 g and 20.17 g are added to the box. What is

(a) the total mass of the box,

(b) the difference in the masses of the pieces to correct significant figures?

- Q:-
On an open ground, a motorist follows a track that turns to his left by an angle of 60° after every 500 m. Starting from a given turn, specify the displacement of the motorist at the third, sixth and eighth turn. Compare the magnitude of the displacement with the total path length covered by the motorist in each case.

- Q:-
What amount of heat must be supplied to 2.0 x 10

^{-2}kg of nitrogen (at room temperature) to raise its temperature by 45 °C at constant pressure? (Molecular mass of N^{2}= 28; R = 8.3 J mol^{-1}K^{-1}.) - Q:- In which of the following examples of motion, can the body be considered approximately a point object:

(a) a railway carriage moving without jerks between two stations.

(b) a monkey sitting on top of a man cycling smoothly on a circular track.

(c) a spinning cricket ball that turns sharply on hitting the ground.

(d) a tumbling beaker that has slipped off the edge of a table. - Q:-
A transverse harmonic wave on a string is described by

y(x,t) = 3.0 sin [36t + 0.018x + π /4]

Where x and y are in cm and t in s. The positive direction of x is from left to right.

(a) Is this a travelling wave or a stationary wave? If it is travelling, what are the speed and direction of its propagation?

(b) What are its amplitude and frequency?

(c) What is the initial phase at the origin?

(d) What is the least distance between two successive crests in the wave?

- Q:-
The blades of a windmill sweep out a circle of area A. (a) If the wind flows at a velocity v perpendicular to the circle, what is the mass of the air passing through it in time t?(b) What is the kinetic energy of the air? (c) Assume that the windmill converts 25% of the wind's energy into electrical energy, and that A = 30 m

^{2}, v = 36 km/h and the density of air is 1.2 kg m^{-3}. What is the electrical power produced? - Q:-
A calorie is a unit of heat or energy and it equals about 4.2 J where 1J = 1 kg m

^{2}s^{–2}. Suppose we employ a system of units in which the unit of mass equals α kg, the unit of length equals β m, the unit of time is γ s. Show that a calorie has a magnitude 4.2 α^{–1}β^{– 2}γ^{2}in terms of the new units. - Q:-
The length, breadth and thickness of a rectangular sheet of metal are 4.234 m, 1.005 m, and 2.01 cm respectively. Give the area and volume of the sheet to correct significant figures.

- Q:-
A bolt of mass 0.3 kg falls from the ceiling of an elevator moving down with an uniform speed of 7 m s

^{-1}. It hits the floor of the elevator (length of the elevator = 3 m) and does not rebound. What is the heat produced by the impact? Would your answer be different if the elevator were stationary? - Q:-
Explain clearly, with examples, the distinction between:

a) magnitude of displacement (sometimes called distance) over an interval of time, and the total length of path covered by a particle over the same interval;

b) magnitude of average velocity over an interval of time, and the average speed over the same interval. [Average speed of a particle over an interval of time is defined as the total path length divided by the time interval]. Show in both (a) and (b) that the second quantity is either greater than or equal to the first.

When is the equality sign true? [For simplicity, consider one-dimensional motion only].

- Q:-
When the planet Jupiter is at a distance of 824.7 million kilometers from the Earth, its angular diameter is measured to be 35.72" of arc. Calculate the diameter of Jupiter.

- Q:-
Explain why: (a) a body with large reflectivity is a poor emitter (b) a brass tumbler feels much colder than a wooden tray on a chilly day (c) an optical pyrometer (for measuring high temperatures) calibrated for an ideal black body radiation gives too low a value for the temperature of a red hot iron piece in the open, but gives a correct value for the temperature when the same piece is in the furnace (d) the earth without its atmosphere would be inhospitably cold (e) heating systems based on circulation of steam are more efficient in warming a building than those based on circulation of hot water

- Q:- Explain why (or how):

(a) In a sound wave, a displacement node is a pressure antinode and vice versa,

(b) Bats can ascertain distances, directions, nature, and sizes of the obstacles without any eyes,

(c) A violin note and sitar note may have the same frequency, yet we can distinguish between the two notes,

(d) Solids can support both longitudinal and transverse waves, but only longitudinal waves can propagate in gases, and

(e) The shape of a pulse gets distorted during propagation in a dispersive medium. - Q:-
A passenger arriving in a new town wishes to go from the station to a hotel located 10 km away on a straight road from the station. A dishonest cabman takes him along a circuitous path 23 km long and reaches the hotel in 28 min. What is

(a) the average speed of the taxi,

(b) the magnitude of average velocity? Are the two equal?

- Q:-
Choose the correct alternative:

(a) If the zero of potential energy is at infinity, the total energy of an orbiting satellite is negative of its kinetic/potential energy.

(b) The energy required to launch an orbiting satellite out of earth’s gravitational influence is more/less than the energy required to project a stationary object at the same height (as the satellite) out of earth’s influence.

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