Question 3

What are the components of the transport system in highly organised plants?


Transportation in plants:- There are two components for the transportation in highly organised plants. Transportation of some materials like gases, water, minerals, organic solutes in the form of food, hormones occurs by these two components- xylem and phloem. 

  1. Xylem:- transportation of water and minerals occurs through the xylem. Water and minerals are absorbs from the soil and then by the roots, transport it to the tip of growing stem in the sequential manner. This uptake of water and minerals followed by some processes like osmosis, diffusion. Water and minerals are transported through the root hair to the cortex and then to the leaves by the two pathway apoplast and symplast by the root pressure and the transpirational pull activity. This process is unidirectional.

  2. Phloem:- Phloem helps in transportation of food in the form of organic solutes from leaves to the storage organs of the plant and to all parts of the plants, this process is known as translocation. Food is transported through the sieve elements of the phloem and needs metabolic energy to transport the food. They use this metabolic energy in the form of ATP and by the process of osmosis water enters in the sieve tubes that raise the pressure in the phloem and then the food is transported to the parts of the plants. Transportation of food movement involves along the turgor pressure gradient that is induced by maintained gradient of water potential. This process is multidirectional.

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