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Chapter 3 Metals and Non-Metals

Elements are the substance that cannot be broken down into simpler ones. There are 118 elements known in the current period that display a definite set of physical and chemical properties. On this basis element are categorised into metals, non-metals and metalloids. In your previous class you  had studied about physical and chemical properties of metals and non-metal this chapter we study in more elaborate  manner that explains about features of metals and nonmetals  with their exception. Here you will also understand about the reactive nature of metals why potassium sodium is highly reactive whereas gold, platinum is least reactive formation of compound i.e. ionic compound. Extraction of metal from their ores different metals are extracted from various methods like roasting and calcination and electrorefining of metals.

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Exercise 1

Exercise 2

Exercise 3

Exercise 4

  • Q1 Define the following terms.    (i) Mineral          (ii) Ore          (iii) Gangue
    Ans:

    (i) Mineral: Minerals are the substances that are rich in particular metals and their composition is fixed.

    (ii) Ore: Minerals from which particular metals can be extracted profitably are known as ores.

    (iii) Gangue: The impurities like sand, silt, soil, gravel, etc. present in the ore are called gangue.


    Q2 Name two metals which are found in nature in the free state.
    Ans:

    Gold, Silver are the metals that are found in free stable because these metals are least reactive, so they are present at the bottom of the reactivity series.


    Q3 What chemical process is used for obtaining a metal from its oxide?
    Ans:

    Metals from its oxide obtained from reduction. Metal oxide is reduced by this process, metal oxides are reduced by using suitable reducing agents such as carbon or by highly reactive metals to displace the metals from their oxides.

    Example, On treating zinc oxide with carbon it reduces to metallic zinc.

    Manganese dioxide is reduced to manganese when treated with aluminium powder, so aluminium displaces manganese from its oxide.

    Oxides of more reactive metals are reduced by electrolysis.


Exercise 5

Exercise 6

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