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Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resource

The previous chapter we study about our environment but in this chapter we will study to maintain our natural resources so as to avail for future generations. We will know about stakeholder how we can sustainable management of wildlife and study the case of different warriors, those who motivate and initiate environmental protection act like chipko movement and others. Many more areas of concern are water management like dams, Rain water harvesting method, various traditional ways of water reservoirs. Most important chapter that makes awareness about conservation of natural resources for our future generation.

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Exercise 1

  • Q1 What changes can you make in your habits to become more environment-friendly?

    Changes to make our habitat more environmental friendly can be done in various ways:-

    We must have done the five R’s to protect our environment:- reduce, refuse, recycle, repurpose and reuse.

    Refuse means say no to the harmful things that can harm our environment and us like say no to single use plastic like plastic glasses- use paper glasses that is biodegradable, say no to plastic carry bags- use jute bags, do not take polythene for the small things we can carry in our jute bag etc; Reduce means that we should use less amount of things that we are using in our daily lives like we should save lights by switching off necessary lights, bulbs, fans or by not wasting food take the food in limited amount that we can eat; Reuse means we can use things again and again like jars for putting pickle again and again, glass bottles like jam bottle can be used again in the kitchen for the storage. And, this reuse phenomena does not use any energy; Repurpose is the phenomena where the thing cannot be used for the same purpose but we can use this for some purposes like plastic bottles, cracked crockery or cups these can be used for the plantation or for feeding the birds; Recycle means that use of wastes by recycling them like agricultural waste including paddy husks, corn cobs, fibrous coats of coconuts, tobacco waste and used papers can be converted into the usable papers and boards by the paper mills. Recycling of papers is very costly and needs some energy but worthwhile from the conservation of resources point of view recovery or recycling of papers can save many trees. By using these methods we can make our environment friendly and alternatively we our saving our environment from the exploitation because if the natural resources get extinct from the environment we will face the extreme conditions without the resources. If we will use environmental friendly ways we are automatically saving the basic human needs for the future generation and this concept is also known as the sustainable development. This perception for the sustainable development, changes the socio- economic services concept to meet the requirements for the future generation or to make our environment long- ranging by using limited amounts of resources.

    Q2 What would be the advantages of exploiting resources with short-term aims?

    Exploiting resources with the short- terms aims gave the advantage that our present generation will be able to meet the requirements and the rate of growth at the faster and the immediate rate. It also helps in the growth at the faster rate of economy as well. We should also stop the unlimited use of the natural resources as they are very limited. We should not overuse the natural resources as they are present for our short- terms gains that would only lead to the depletion of the resources for our present generation or as well as for the future generation. Most probably we should use the long- term or long ranging natural resources so that we can fulfil the requirements of human basic needs of their present generation and as well as for their future generations.

    Q3 How would these advantages differ from the advantages of using a long-term perspective in managing our resources?

    Management of our natural resources by using short term aims are different from the long term perspective.

    Short- terms aims aims gave the advantage that our present generation will be able to meet the requirements and the rate of growth at the faster and the immediate rate. It also helps in the growth at the faster rate of economy as well. It only fulfils the current demand. They use very unlimited amount of natural resources that’s why they are not able to meet the future generation requirements. This short- term perspective does not provide the discovery of the new things or the new discoveries because they grow at very faster rate and exploit at very faster rate.

    On the other hand, long term perspective gave the advantage that the uses or management of natural resources occurs in that way that with our present generation, future generation basic needs also get fulfilled also known as sustainable use of the resources. It fulfils the current and the future generation demands. They use very limited amount of natural resources that’s why they are able to meet the future generation requirements as well. Unlike short- term perspective, the long- term perspective provides more time for the new discoveries or for the new technologies or sustainable energy sources etc.

    That’s why we should use long- ranging aims so that basic needs could be used by present generation as well as the future generation.

    Q4 Why do you think that there should be equitable distribution of resources? What forces would be working against an equitable distribution of our resources?

    Equitable distribution of natural resources should be occur so that each and every species gets the same benefit which will be helpful for the survival. If the distribution of the natural resources are available in the equal amount and if any will competition then all the species would contain same position so that they can fight equally for their survival. So, there would be no biasedness (partiality) among the species.

    Some forces are given that will be work against an equitable distribution of the resources like human greed, corruption (by government which favours the rich and the powerful people), lobby of rich and powerful people, reservation categories etc.

Exercise 2

  • Q1 Why should we conserve forests and wildlife?

    Conservation means the management of human resources or natural resources of the biosphere for the maximum benefit from the present generation to meet the requirements of the future generation. Conservation of wildlife and forest has mainly three aspects- to maintain ecological process, air, water and soil systems; to preserve the diversity of species, to maintain the long ranging use of species. The conservation of natural resources, living or non- living resources, plants and animals, biotic or abiotic factors which support our environment should be maintained or used in the proper way. Many conservation strategies have been given for the use of living resources like World Conservation Strategy.

    Forest conservation and wildlife conservation is the important act for growing trees as a regular crop, also fulfils the requirement of the wood for making wooden houses, villa or for making food etc. forest preserves the soil erosion. Forest provides us various medicines known as jadi- buti in hindi for the various diseases for their cure. Forests are also known as biodiversity hotspots which means that are rich in biodiversity (variety of species) includes bacteria, fungi, birds, animals, lichens, short plants, long trees etc. they are very important factors or species to maintain or for the conservation of forest. Loss of the biodiversity lowers the genetic variability, ecological stability or increase the risk of exploitation of resources, that’s why we should conserve forest where human interference is prohibited. Forest conservation act is given in 1980, to preserve forests. A special function is celebrated each year for the tree plantation during February and July since 1950, i.e, Van Mahotsava. Many international agencies are given for promoting the afforestation programs (afforestation should be done only when the areas are unfit for the agriculture) like World Bank, USAID (US Agency for International Development), Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA) etc.

    Q2 Suggest some approaches towards the conservation of forests.

    Forest conservation approaches have been given:- In- Situ conservation approach have been given for the forest conservation in natural or artificial habitat under human control like National parks, Zoological parks, Botanical gardens, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Biosphere Reserves etc. Several national conservation programs are united with the international programs like UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation) and IUCN (International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources). In- Situ conservation is the appropriate method for the maintenance of plants and animals in their natural habitat or under the protected areas.

    National park is the land reserved area and is maintained by the national government for the welfare of entire wildlife. Plantation, cultivation, grazing are not allowed. Total 103 national parks are present in India. India’s first national park was Jim Corbett National park made in 1936.

    Wildlife sanctuary is an reserved area for animals only. Private ownership, minor forest products are allowed or provided that do not affect the animals. Total 548 wildlife sanctuaries are present in India.

    Biosphere reserves are the specified area in which multiple use of land is permitted by dividing it into multiple zones, each zone is used for the particular activity like-

    1. Core zone:- no human activity is allowed in this zone.

    2. Buffer zone:- limited human activities are allowed in this zone.

    3. Manipulation zone:- many human activities are allowed in this zone.

    Biosphere reserves preserve wildlife population, genetic resources available of the plants and the animals.

    Zoological parks or botanical garden have been made for preserving animals or plants respectively that are made for conservation of forest.

Exercise 3

  • Q1 Find out about the traditional systems of water harvesting/management in your region.

    There are many traditional methods of water harvesting or management like khadin system, ponds, tals, canals, kohli tanks, rain water harvesting, saza kuva, and wells have been dug for the drinking water. Many water reservoirs are made by the government for the drinking water for humans as well as animals.

    Water has been harvested in India since antiquity for the water management and for saving the water in drought conditions. By harvesting the rain drops with the direct connection from the rooftop where water is collected to the tanks where water is stored built in the courtyard, this is rain water harvesting system; khadin is also known as dhora and used to harvest surface runoff water for agriculture; ponds are the large water harvesting system for the groundwater recharge, infiltration etc; kohli tanks are the main water harvesting system or ancient harvesting system, it is cylindrical shaped formed underground and when rain comes it fills with water and keep it cool or fresh rainwater in it; kuva, wells, canals have been made by the artificial methods for the water harvesting or management. 

    As in the chapter showing the khadin, tanks and nadis as the traditional system of rain water management system in Rajasthan, also known as dhor; Bandharas and tals in Maharashtra; bundhis in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh; Surangams in Kerala; and Kattas in Karnataka are used as ancient water harvesting systems. In largely level terrain, the water harvesting system is composed of earthen embankment or low, check dams are built across seasonally flooded gullies. Monsoon rain filled behind the structures only the large structure will hold the water for the long- range. The main purpose of the water management is not only to hold the water of the surface level but also holds the ground water level as well. Groundwater do not evaporate and spreads to fill the wells and provides moisture the earth and the soil respectively.

    Q2 Compare the above system with the probable systems in hilly/mountainous areas or plains or plateau regions.

    In the plain regions, the water harvesting systems possess crescent- shaped earthen embankments, low, straight or concrete. Monsoon rain filled behind the structures only the large structure will hold the water for the long- range; or in hilly or mountainous regions canal irrigation system also called Kuls (water channels filled during the rain and carries it to various locations, i.e diverted into the man- made channels down the hillsides cause in the hilly area only terrace farming occurs, so there is no plain area) and ponds are used for the water harvesting or management; or in the plateau regions Cheruvu is used to store the runoff water.

    Q3 Find out the source of water in your region/locality. Is water from this source available to all people living in that area?

    In our region or locality water sources are only available to those people or the area which are approved by the local-civic authority. The water is supplied by the government agencies at the particular timing through the taps only when we on the motors. The government agencies supplied the water from the lakes, ponds etc. to their homes directly. In the rural areas, people obtain water from the ponds, wells, streams and rivers. These water sources are used by the people for all uses like cooking food, drinking, washing clothes etc; and in urban areas, water collection occurs. In this water transport occurs through the canals, tunnels, pipelines from these sites to the water harvesting systems.

Exercise 4

  • Q1 What changes would you suggest in your home in order to be environment-friendly?

    Environment- friendly consciousness is not only about the plastic bags, we have to be more conscious about the pollution control, wildlife protection and conservation, conservation of natural resources and some other actions which helps in reducing the stress conditions of the environment and all this depends on our everyday choices we make. Some changes that can be done in our homes to be environment- friendly:-

    1. By saving electricity:- we should switch off our lights, fans television and energy or light appliances when they are not in use.

    2. By using solar panels:- Solar panel is designed to absorb the sun’s rays as the source of the energy for generating electricity. We should use solar panels instead of generators or invertors. Almost 28- 35 solar panels are used to power a house but it also depends on the roof size, location or the number of appliances being charged by the solar panels.

    3. Separation of biodegradable and non- biodegradable waste:- we should separate the biodegradable or non-biodegradable waste. Biodegradable means which can be decomposed easily like dry waste (peels of vegetables that can be used for making the fertilizer for improving the soil fertility). And, non- biodegradable is which can’t be decomposed easily like polythene, electronic waste which affects the environment.

    4. By saving water:- Tap should be off while we are brushing our teeth or shaving, we should not waste the water of aquaguard as the water we consume from aqua guard, it releases the maximum amount of water than the water we are using. Approximately RO purifiers waste approx. 3 litres of water for every 1 litre of purified water. So, we should use this waste water for the plantation, for animals, for birds etc. or we can also use this waste water in mopping the floor.

    5. By using these five phenomena reuse, reduce, repurpose, refuse or recycle in the kitchen appliances or in home.

    Q2 Can you suggest some changes in your school which would make it environment-friendly?

    Some changes we can make in our school which would make it environmental- friendly. These are following:-

    1. Plantation of the trees around the school campus, make loan to sit in the ground that will be more comfortable for the kids as well as the teachers.

    2. We should switch off our lights, fans television and energy or light appliances when they are not in use.

    3. Putting solar panels on the roof of the school instead of using generator because solar panel generators are silent and have no moving parts. Generators produce high amount of noise that comes from gas or diesel powered machines. Solar panels require less maintenance than generators.

    4. By avoiding water waster while we are drinking.

    5. By separating degradable or non- biodegradable wastes.

    6. There can be more windows for saving the electricity bill or for the natural light consumption.

    7. Reusing the paper for writing on both the sides or we can use pencil for the rough work so that we can use the paper for the multiple times.

    Q3 We saw in this chapter that there are four main stakeholders when it comes to forests and wildlife. Which among these should have the authority to decide the management of forest produce? Why do you think so?

    The four-main stakeholders have been discussed in this chapter- 1. People who live in the forest are dependent on the forest produce for various aspects of their life. 2. The forest department of the government which owns the land and controls the resources from the forest. 3. The industrialists- from those who use ‘tendu’ leaves to make bidis to the ones with the paper mills- use various forest produces, but are not dependent on the forests in any one area. 4. The wildlife and the nature enthusiasts who want to conserve nature in its pristine form.

    Among all four stakeholders, the forest department of the government should have the authority to decide the management of forest produces because the forest department is the caretaker of the land used in forest, controls the resources from the forest and this forest department is responsible for any damage to the forest.

    Q4 How can you as an individual contribute or make a difference to the management of (a) forests and wildlife, (b) water resources and (c) coal and petroleum?

    As an individual we should make the contribution and some differences for the management of Forests and wildlife, water resources and coal petroleum. Some approaches we should use for the conservation.

    Forest and Wildlife:

    1. We should promote Afforestation programs instead of promoting deforestation. Deforestation is the clearing of forest to claim the land that will be used by the man. It affects the soil fertility, increase soil erosion, floods and droughts have become more frequent, landslides increases etc. So, to overcome these effects, afforestation program should be applied which means to grow plants, i.e, plantation.

    2. We should minimise the use of timber and instead of that we should use the alternative source of energy like biogas, supplement the fuel wood. Forest fires should be prevented; pests and diseases of the forest trees should be controlled.

    3. Overgrazing should be prohibited; uses of modern techniques should be adopted like irrigation, fertilizers, control of weeds, breeding of choice trees and tissue culture etc.

    Water Resources:

    1. We should promote rain- water harvesting.

    2. Close the taps while we are brushing our teeth, shaving or bathing when the bucket gets filled.

    3. We should avoid the throwing of waste like plastic bottles, polythene, glasses in the beaches, lakes, ponds etc, that are polluting our water.

    4. Several waste water treatment methods have been given like Bioreactors, Trickling filter method, Activated Sludge Method, treatment of Industrial Effluents etc.

    Coal and Petroleum:

    1. Use the bicycle to go to the short distances instead of using scooty, cars, or another automobiles which are running on petrol.

    2. We should not use coal as a fuel.

    3. We should use the alternative energy sources like hydro- energy power plant and solar energy instead of using coal or petroleum because they affect our environment and our health too. They produce large amount of smog by burning them and produce very foul smell which affects our health by inhaling them.


    Q5 What can you as an individual do to reduce your consumption of the various natural resources?

    Natural resources are the resources which exists in the nature without the interference of human beings. These are the important resources which are used to support the life and to meet the requirements of the people. Like oil, water, soil, air, metals, stones etc. all those substances which are taken from the nature are refer to as natural resources. As an individual, we can reduce our consumption of natural resources to meet the requirements of present generation as well as the future generation and these are following:-

    1. Deforestation should be stop. There can be many cause of the deforestation like forest fires, pests and the diseases, weather (storm and snow damages the forest) etc.

    2. Recycling of agricultural waste (agricultural waste including paddy husks, corn cobs, fibrous coats of coconuts, tobacco waste and used papers can be converted into the usable papers), waste paper (old books, newspapers, magazines, notebooks are converted into the new or usable papers by the paper mills. Recycling of papers are very costly but it can save trees from being cut), jute (jute waste is converted into the hardboards), cattle dung (used in gobar gas plants provides in cooking gas), composting (domestic wastes and sludge can be decomposed in our own house by composting to provide humus to the replenish depleted soil resources), metals, glass and plastics etc. should be done.

    3. Wastewater management:- many waste water treatment methods has been given to clean the water that can be reused.

    4. We should also apply the rainwater harvesting system.

    5. We should avoid the running of automobiles to cover the short distances, we should use bicycle.

    6. Some alternative fuels like bio- diesel, refuse- derived fuel, batteries, non- fossil methane, vegetable oil, biogas and some biomass sources are used instead of coal or petroleum which is used in reducing the pollution.

    7. Some alternative sources of energy are used like solar power, nuclear power, hydro- power, wave energy, natural gas, geothermal power plants are used instead of inverter or generators.

    Q6 List five things you have done over the last one week to — (a) conserve our natural resources. (b) increase the pressure on our natural resources.

    (a) Five things are following that i have done to conserve our natural resources over the last one week:-

    1. I carried paper bags and jute bags while leaving the house for the shopping or for taking vegetables etc.

    2. I preferred walking or bicycle to cover short distances instead of going on scooty or automobile appliances.

    3. I switched off my rooms or house lights, fans, television which was unnecessarily on.

    4. I used pencils for the rough work so that paper can be used again and again.

    5. I stopped the tap while brushing the teeth or stopped taking shower and i filled bucket to save water for bathing.


    (b) For increasing the pressure on our natural resources, the list of five things which i have done over the last one week are following:-

    1. I played video games for the whole day.

    2. I forgot to switch off the lights of my bedroom while leaving the room.

    3. I threw plastic that is non- biodegradable on the roads.

    4. I made paper boats during the rain and play with them.

    5. I also forgot to switch off the charger point and left my phone on charging for the whole night which is the wastage of electricity or this can also damage our mobile phones.

    Q7 On the basis of the issues raised in this chapter, what changes would you incorporate in your lifestyle in a move towards a sustainable use of our resources?

    Everyone should incorporate the changes in our life- style moves towards the sustainable use of our resources:-

    1. We should promote afforestation (planting the trees) programs instead of deforestation (cutting down the trees).

    2. We should carry paper bags and jute bags while leaving the house for the shopping or for taking vegetables etc. instead of taking polythene from the shopkeeper.

    3. We should prefer walking or bicycle to cover short distances instead of going on scooty or automobile appliances for controlling the air pollution and the noise pollution as well. And, to cover the long distances we should take buses and vans or we can say public transport instead of taking personal vehicles.

    4. We should switch off lights, fans, television which was unnecessarily on to save electricity or energy.

    5. We should use pencils for the rough work so that paper can be used again and again.

    6. We should stop the tap while brushing the teeth or stop taking shower, use bucket to save water for bathing.

    7. Use water harvesting techniques like rain water harvesting system which will be very helpful for surviving in the extreme condition.

    8. Use solar panels, hydro- power to save electricity.

    9. During winters, wear extra sweaters or clothes to avoid the use of heaters or we can also take hot bags.

    10. We should use stairs instead of taking lifts for maintaining our health and for saving the electricity as well.

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