Question 1

# Look at the activities listed below. Reason out whether or not work is done in the light of your understanding of the term ‘work’.   • Suma is swimming in a pond.   •  A donkey is carrying a load on its back.   •  A wind-mill is lifting water from a well.   •  A green plant is carrying out photosynthesis.   •  An engine is pulling a train.   •  Food grains are getting dried in the sun.   •  A sailboat is moving due to wind energy.

Work is done whenever the given two conditions are satisfied:

(i) Force is applied.

(ii) Displacement takes place.

(iii) The angle between the force and displacement is not 90 degrees .

(a)  When Suma is swimming in a swimming pool, she applies force in forward direction and moves in the forward direction. So, displacement is in the forward direction. Both are in the same direction. Therefore, work is done.

(b)  When a donkey is carrying a load on his back, it is applied a force in the upward direction. But, displacement of the load is in the forward direction. Since, displacement is perpendicular to force, the work done is zero.

(c) When a wind-mill is lifting water from a well, it is applying a force in the upward direction and it is moving water in an upward direction. Hence, work is done by the wind-mill in lifting water from the well.

(d) In this case, there is no force involved when a green plant is carrying photosynthesis.

Therefore, the work done is zero.

(e) When an engine is pulling a train, it is applying a force in the forward direction. This allows the train to move in the forward direction. Hence, there is a displacement in the train in the same direction. Therefore, work is done by the engine on the train.

(f) When food grains are getting dried in the Sun, there is no force involved. Hence, the work done is zero during the process of food grains getting dried in the Sun.

(g) When a sailboat is moving due to wind energy, force is applied by the boat in the forward direction. Therefore, there is a displacement in the boat in the direction of force. Hence, work is done by wind on the boat.