Chapter 7 Conservation of Plants and Animals

  • The areas which are meant for conservation of forest and wild animals are named as wildlife sanctuary, biosphere and national parks.
  • Flora and fauna are the plants and the animals of that particular area.
  • The species which is found in a particular area is known as endemic species.
  • The species which are facing the danger of extinction called as endangered species.
  • The book that contains all the data or the records of all the endangered species known as Red Data Book.
  • Movement of species from its own habitat to some other habitat for a particular period of time for the specific purpose known as migration.
  • In order to save trees, we should save paper.
  • A variety of living organisms found in a specific area is known as biodiversity.
  • The areas which are meant for conservation and preservation of biodiversity, are known as biosphere reserve.
  • Conversion of fertile land into the desert by the soil erosion is called as desertification.
  • A system which involve plants, animals, microorganisms along with the abiotic factors like climate, soil, river etc. is known as the ecosystem.
  • Disappearance of a species from the earth is known as extinct species.
  • The reserves which are very large and diverge enough to protect whole sets of ecosystem, known as National parks. It includes flora and fauna etc.
  • Planting trees in the particular area where forests were destroyed is called as reforestation.
  • A place where wild animals are protected, in a particular area with the suitable living conditions known as sanctuary. Sanctuary means safety.

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Exercise 1 ( Page No. : 88 )

  • Q1 Fill in the blanks: (a) A place where animals are protected in their natural habitat is called                  . (b) Species found only in a particular area is known as                          . (c) Migratory birds fly to far away places because of                     changes.

    (a) Sanctuary

    Sanctuary means safe place where animals are protected.

    (b) Endemic

    Endemic is called as the species which is found in a particular area.

    (c) Climatic

    Due to climatic changes, birds migrate from one place to another for the survival.

    Q2 Differentiate between the following: (a) Wildlife sanctuary and biosphere reserve (b) Zoo and wildlife sanctuary (c) Endangered and extinct species (d) Flora and fauna

    (a) Wildlife sanctuary and biosphere reserve

    Wildlife sanctuary

    Biosphere reserve

    The area in which animals are protected from hunting.

    The area which is constructed for the conservation of the biodiversity.

    It provides suitable condition for the survival.

    It conserves various plants, animals and microorganisms etc.

    Example: Pachmarhi sanctuary

    Example: Pachmarhi biosphere

    (b) Zoo and wildlife sanctuary


                               Wildlife sanctuary

    In zoo, animals are kept for public exhibition.

    The area in which animals are protected from hunting.

    It is an artificial habitat.

    It is an natural habitat.

    (c) Endangered species and extinct species

                       Endangered species

                             Extinct species

    The population of the species which is at the stage of extinction.

    The species which gets disappears from the earth.

    Example: Leopard, blue whale etc.

    Example: Doda, passenger pigeon etc.

    (d) Flora and fauna



    All living plant of the particular area refers as flora.

    All living animals are referred to as fauna of that particular habitat.

    Example: Sal, Mango, Teak, Pine etc.

    Example: Wolf, Wild dog, Leopard etc.


    Q3 Discuss the effects of deforestation on the following: (a) Wild animals (b) Environment (c) Villages (Rural areas) (d) Cities (Urban areas) (e) Earth (f) The next generation

    (a) Wild animals:

    Forests are the main natural habitat for the wild animals. Deforestation means cutting of trees from the particular area like forest. Trees are cut down for the various purposes like agricultural, industrial and many other. If trees are removed from their habitat then the number of wild animals automatically decreases.

    (b) Effects of deforestation on environment:

    Deforestation means the removal of the trees. If trees are removed then the level of the carbon dioxide increase or rise up in the environment. Increase in the level of the CO2 is the main reason of increasing the temperature on the earth which leads to the global warming. Deforestation disturbs the water cycle. Deforestation also leads to the drastic changes in the environment like floods, droughts.

    (c) Effects of deforestation on villages (Rural areas):

    By removing trees, the top layer of the soil will be removed easily by high speed winds or by water. Roots of the plants bind to the soil particles together. In the absence of trees soil erosion occurs readily and land becomes infertile. A fertile land is a source of living for the people who lives in villages.

    (d) Effects of deforestation on cities (Urban areas):

    Due to deforestation, the level of the carbon dioxide increase in the environment which leads to an increment of the earth’s temperature which is the main cause of the global warming. Carbon dioxide is a polluted gas. In cities, pollution from the vehicles, factories, industries occur generally. Increasing temperature of the earth also disturb the water cycle.

    (e) Effects of deforestation on earth:

    Deforestation leads to the soil erosion, drought. Flood like dangerous conditions. By deforestation an increment in the risk of the natural calamities. Due to deforestation, the air becomes polluted and a number of diseases on earth.

    (f) Effects of deforestation on next generation:

    Environmental conditions will change slowly if we remove trees from the earth. It may lead to the global warming, soil erosion, drought, flood, green house effect and many more climatic change conditions. Hence, the next generation will have to face the deforestation consequences.

    Q4 What will happen if: (a) we go on cutting trees. (b) the habitat of an animal is disturbed. (c) the top layer of soil is exposed.

    (a) If we go on cutting trees: If we go no cutting trees then the habitat of the wild animals will be destroyed completely. The level of the carbon dioxide increases which may leads to the global warming. So, biodiversity is extremely affected by the deforestation which may lead to the danger of the survival of the many organisms.

    (b) If the habitat of an animal is disturbed: A habitat is a place where an organism lives. It provides shelter, food and many other important things which are necessary for the survival. If the habitat of an animal is disturbed then they all have to move from that place to another for food and shelter. During this process, animal may get killed by the others.

    (c) If the top layer of the soil is exposed: The upper/ top layer of the soil is fertile and the inner layer of the soil is rocky and hard. If the top layer of the soil is exposed, then the lower layer of the soil is exposed which is infertile.

    The upper layer of the soil has humus whereas the lower layer does not have humus. If the continued exposure of the top layer of the soil occurs, it may lead to the soil erosion. It will make the land fertile.

    Q5 Answer in brief: (a) Why should we conserve biodiversity? (b) Protected forests are also not completely safe for wild animals. Why? (c) Some tribals depend on the jungle. How? (d) What are the causes and consequences of deforestation? (e) What is Red Data Book? (f) What do you understand by the term migration?

    (a) Biodiversity may be defined as the variety of different life forms like plants, animals and microorganisms in an area. Both plants and animals are dependent on each other for the survival. They help each other by the exchange of gases. It means if we remove the one, then it will affect the survival of other organisms or species. To maintain a balance in nature we conserve biodiversity.

    (b) Protected forests are also not completely safe for wild animals because as we know forests are the source of food and shelter. So, the people who live near the forests or who lives in the forests uses resources of forests to fulfil their own requirements. People get food, wood and many other things from the forests. People cut wood and kill animals and sell them for money.

    (c) Some tribals depend on the jungle as they get food, shelter, fodder and fallen leaves from the jungle. These are their daily needs. So, the tribals depend on forests for their daily needs and for their survival too.

    (d) Deforestation is the removal of trees.

    Causes of deforestation are as follows:

    • For wood, deforestation occurs.
    • For cattle grazing.
    • For expanding industrial area.
    • For agricultural expansion.

    Consequences of deforestation are as follows:

    • Flooding
    • Fewer crops
    • Soil erosion
    • Loss of biodiversity
    • Increase in pollution
    • Global warming
    • Drought
    • Green house effect
    • Disturbance in water cycle                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (e) A book that contains the record of all the endangered species known as Red Data Book. IUCN maintained this Red Data Book. IUCN stands for International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.                                                                                                                (f) The movement of an organism or by a group of organism to other place from their original or natural habitat is known as migration. To avoid the extreme conditions of climate or for breeding migration is done by organism or by a group of organisms.

    Q6 In order to meet the ever-increasing demand in factories and for shelter, trees are being continually cut. Is it justified to cut trees for such projects? Discuss and prepare a brief report.

    No, it is not justified to cut the trees to meet the ever increasing demands. Forests are the natural habitat of several organisms. Forests are called as the lungs of the earth. Forests maintains a balance in the nature and prevent the overheating of earth. Forests increase the fertility of soil which prevents the soil erosion. Forests provide pure air to us. Forests conserve biodiversity. Forests prevent the natural calamities like drought, floods, global warming and green house effects etc.

    Q7 How can you contribute to the maintenance of green wealth of your locality? Make a list of actions to be taken by you.

    By growing plants and by taking care of them, I can help in maintaining the green wealth of my locality. For planting trees, I can encourage people by giving the, information about the importance of trees, I can aware people by telling them the natural calamities like drought, flood, global warming and many other which are the result of deforestation. I will plant more and more trees.

    Q8 Explain how deforestation leads to reduced rainfall.

    Deforestation means removal of trees. Deforestation is done for various purposes like for expanding agricultural and industrial area. Plants leaves oxygen gas and absorb carbon dioxide from the environment. If deforestation occurs then the level of the carbon dioxide will increase in the environment which will trap more solar radiations that leads to global warming. It may increase the temperature of the earth that may also lead to the disturbance of water cycle. If the water cycle is disturbed then the rainfall pattern is also disturbed. It may leads to drought. 

    Q9 Find out the information about the national parks in your state. Identify and show their location on the outline map of India.

    In Uttarakhand, Jim Corbett National Park, Nanda Devi National Park, Rajaji National Park, Govind Pashu Vihar etc. is located.  


    Q10 Why should paper be saved? Prepare a list of ways by which you can save paper.

    To make paper, trees are cut down. Trees maintains the balance of the nature of the earth. In order to save trees, we have to save papers.

    We can save paper in following ways:

    1. By recycling the paper.
    2. Aware people about the importance of paper.
    3. By writing on both sides of the paper.
    4. Reuse the packing material.

    Q11 Complete the word puzzle: Down 1. Species on the verge of extinction. 2. A book carrying information about endangered species. 5. Consequence of deforestation. Across 1. Species which have vanished. 3. Species found only in a particular habitat. 4. Variety of plants, animals and microorganisms found in an area.


    1. Endangered
    2. Red Data Book                                                                                                                                                                                                          5. Deserts


    1. Extinct

    3. Endemic

    4. Biodiversity 

    word cross