Question 1

Explain the Principles of Scientific management given by Taylor.


Scientific management refers to conducting business activities according to standardized tools and methods and trained personnel in order to increase the output, improve its quality and reduce cost and wastage. In other words scientific management means knowing exactly what you want men to do and seeing that they do in the best and cheapest way. Scientific management increases the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization.

Followings are the principles of scientific management :

1. Science not Rule of Thumb: Rule of thumb means a manager makes decisions and finds solutions to any problem on the basis of their personal judgment and experiences as different managers would follow their indigenous rules of thumb and that will be not equally effective. So in order to increase the efficiency of the organization the rule of thumb should be substituted by the scientific method which involved investigations of traditional methods through work and study. According to Taylor even doing any small activity of production should be done scientifically for saving manpower and wastage of time and materials.

2. Harmony, Not Discord: Factory system of production implied that the manager served as a link between the owner and workers. According to this principle there should be complete harmony among the workers and the management because if there is any conflict between workers and the manager then it will help none, the worker, the managers or the owners. Both should realize their importance in the organization for each other. And management should take care of the needs of the workers and at the same time the workers should work hard for the good of the company. And in order to achieve this Taylor called for complete mental revolution on both the part management and workers.

3. Cooperation, Not Individualism: There should be complete cooperation among the workers and the management instead of individualism. According to this principle everybody in the organization must work together in harmony and that is only possible by give and take and proper understanding. In this principle competition should be replaced by cooperation. Both of them understand that they need each other. And for this the workers should not strike and do not make any unreasonable demand by the management. And at the same time the management should not close their ears when the workers give any constructive suggestions and also be rewarded for their suggestions which is beneficial for the organization.

4. Development of each and every person to his or her greatest efficiency and prosperity: Industrial efficiency depends to a large extent on personnel competencies. Worker training was essential for their development and to learn the best method developed as a consequence of the scientific approach. According to Taylor each person should be selected scientifically and assign work according to their physical, mental and intellectual capabilities. And the workers should be given required training from time to time to increase their efficiency. Because an efficient worker produces more and earns more and this will raise efficiency and prosperity for both the company and the workers.

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