Question 3

How is oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in human beings?


Exchange of the gases – oxygen and carbon dioxide, take place in various ways in the human beings.

Transport of the oxygen occurs in the two forms:- one is in the form of solution, dissolved oxygen in water and about 3% of the solution present in the plasma. And, another form is oxyhaemoglobin, about 97 percent of oxygen diffuses from plasma into the red blood cells and it loosely joins with iron of haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin and then it combines with one oxygen molecule.

Carbon dioxide transport is carried by the blood in the three forms:- physical solution, bicarbonate ions and carbaminohemoglobin. About 7% of the carbon dioxide dissolves in the plasma and serve as a physical solution. In the bicarbonate ions 70% carbon dioxide released by tissue cells, diffuses into the plasma and then into the red blood cells. Carbon dioxide combines with water to form carbonic acid by the carbonic anhydrase enzyme, then this acid splits into bicarbonate and hydrogen ion. And, they are joined by the sodium and potassium to maintain pH of the blood. And about 23% of the CO2 enters into the red blood cells and combines with amino group of the reduced Hb (haemoglobin) to form carbaminohemoglobin.

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