• NCERT Chapter
Question 11

# Show that the relation R in the set A of points in a plane given by R = {(P, Q): distance of the point P from the origin is same as the distance of the point Q from the origin}, is an equivalence relation. Further, show that the set of all point related to a point P ≠ (0, 0) is the circle passing through P with origin as centre.

R = {(P, Q): distance of point P from the origin is the same as the distance of point Q from the origin}

Clearly, (P, P) ∈ R since the distance of point P from the origin is always the same as the distance of the same point P from the origin.

∴R is reflexive.

Now,

Let (P, Q) ∈ R.

⇒ The distance of point P from the origin is the same as the distance of point Q from the origin.

⇒ The distance of point Q from the origin is the same as the distance of point P from the origin.

⇒ (Q, P) ∈ R

∴R is symmetric.

Now,

Let (P, Q), (Q, S) ∈ R.

⇒ The distance of points P and Q from the origin is the same and also, the distance of points Q and S from the origin is the same.

⇒ The distance of points P and S from the origin is the same.

⇒ (P, S) ∈ R

∴R is transitive.

Therefore, R is an equivalence relation.

The set of all points related to P ≠ (0, 0) will be those points whose distance from the origin is the same as the distance of point P from the origin.

In other words, if O (0, 0) is the origin and OP = k, then the set of all points related to P is at a distance of k from the origin.

Hence, this set of points forms a circle with the centre as the origin and this circle passes through point P.

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Let A = R – {3} and B = R – {1}. Consider the function  f : A → B defined by

• Q:- Show that the relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} given by R = { (a,b) ; |a - b| is even}, is an equivalence relation. Show that all the elements of {1, 3, 5} are related to each other and all the elements of {2, 4} are related to each other. But no element of {1, 3, 5} is related to any element of {2, 4}.
• Q:-

Prove that the Greatest Integer Function f : R → R, given by f(x) = [x], is neither one-one nor onto, where [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x.

• Q:-

Show that the Modulus Function f : R → R, given by f(x) = |x|, is neither oneone nor onto, where | x | is x, if x is positive or 0 and |x| is – x, if x is negative.

• Q:- Show that the relation R in the set R of real numbers, defined as R = {(a, b): a ≤ b2} is neither reflexive nor symmetric nor transitive.
• ## Recently Viewed Questions of Class 12th mathematics

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Let A = R – {3} and B = R – {1}. Consider the function  f : A → B defined by

• Q:-

Let f : {1, 3, 4} → {1, 2, 5} and g : {1, 2, 5} → {1, 3} be given by f = {(1, 2), (3, 5), (4, 1)} and g = {(1, 3), (2, 3), (5, 1)}. Write down gof.

• Q:- Determine whether each of the following relations are reflexive, symmetric and transitive:
(i) Relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3,13, 14} defined as
R = {(x, y): 3x − y = 0}
(ii) Relation R in the set N of natural numbers defined as
R = {(x, y): y = x + 5 and x < 4}
(iii) Relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} as
R = {(x, y): y is divisible by x}
(iv) Relation R in the set Z of all integers defined as
R = {(x, y): x − y is as integer}
(v) Relation R in the set A of human beings in a town at a particular time given by
(a) R = {(x, y): x and y work at the same place}
(b) R = {(x, y): x and y live in the same locality}
(c) R = {(x, y): x is exactly 7 cm taller than y}
(d) R = {(x, y): x is wife of y}
(e) R = {(x, y): x is father of y}
• Q:-

State with reason whether following functions have inverse

(i) f : {1, 2, 3, 4} → {10} with

f  = {(1, 10), (2, 10), (3, 10), (4, 10)}

(ii) g : {5, 6, 7, 8} → {1, 2, 3, 4} with

g = {(5, 4), (6, 3), (7, 4), (8, 2)}

(iii) h : {2, 3, 4, 5} → {7, 9, 11, 13} with

h = {(2, 7), (3, 9), (4, 11), (5, 13)}

• Q:- Check whether the relation R in R defined as R = {(a, b): a ≤ b3} is reflexive, symmetric or transitive.
• Q:-

Let f : X → Y be an invertible function. Show that f has unique inverse.

(Hint: suppose g1 and g2 are two inverses of f. Then for all y ∈ Y, fog1(y) = 1Y(y) = fog2(y). Use one-one ness of f).

• Q:- Show that the relation R in R defined as R = {(a, b): a ≤ b}, is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.
• Q:- , where R+ is the set of all non-negative real numbers.

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Consider f : R+ → [4, ∞) given by f(x) = x2 + 4. Show that f is invertible with the inverse f–1 of f given by , where R+ is the set of all non-negative real numbers.

• Q:- is one-one. Find the inverse of the function f : [–1, 1] → Range f.

(Hint: For y ∈ Range fy =, for some x in [ - 1, 1], i.e.,)

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Show that f : [–1, 1] → R, given by is one-one. Find the inverse of the function f : [–1, 1] → Range f.

(Hint: For y ∈ Range fy =, for some x in [ - 1, 1], i.e.,)

• Q:- Let R be the relation in the set {1, 2, 3, 4} given by R = {(1, 2), (2, 2), (1, 1), (4, 4), (1, 3), (3, 3), (3, 2)}. Choose the correct answer.
(A) R is reflexive and symmetric but not transitive.
(B) R is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.
(C) R is symmetric and transitive but not reflexive.
(D) R is an equivalence relation.