Question 14

# Let L be the set of all lines in XY plane and R be the relation in L defined as R = {(L1, L2): L1 is parallel to L2}. Show that R is an equivalence relation. Find the set of all lines related to the line y = 2x + 4.

Answer

R = {(*L*_{1}, *L*_{2}): L_{1} is parallel to *L*_{2}}

R is reflexive as any line *L*_{1} is parallel to itself i.e., (*L*_{1}, *L*_{1}) ∈ R.

Now,

Let (*L*_{1}, *L*_{2}) ∈ R.

⇒ *L*_{1} is parallel to *L*_{2.}

⇒ *L*_{2} is parallel to *L*_{1.}

⇒ (*L*_{2}, *L*_{1}) ∈ R

∴ R is symmetric.

Now,

Let (*L*_{1}, *L*_{2}), (*L*_{2}, *L*_{3}) ∈R.

⇒ *L*_{1} is parallel to *L*_{2}. Also, *L*_{2} is parallel to *L*_{3.}

⇒ *L*_{1} is parallel to *L*_{3.}

∴R is transitive.

Hence, R is an equivalence relation.

The set of all lines related to the line *y* = 2*x* + 4 is the set of all lines that are parallel to the line *y* = 2*x* + 4.

Slope of line *y* = 2*x* + 4 is *m* = 2

It is known that parallel lines have the same slopes.

The line parallel to the given line is of the form *y* = 2*x* + *c*, where *c* ∈**R**.

Hence, the set of all lines related to the given line is given by *y* = 2*x* + *c*, where *c* ∈ **R**.

- Q:- Given an example of a relation. Which is

(i) Symmetric but neither reflexive nor transitive.

(ii) Transitive but neither reflexive nor symmetric.

(iii) Reflexive and symmetric but not transitive.

(iv) Reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.

(v) Symmetric and transitive but not reflexive. - Q:- Show that the relation R in the set {1, 2, 3} given by R = {(1, 2), (2, 1)} is symmetric but neither reflexive nor transitive.
- Q:- Determine whether each of the following relations are reflexive, symmetric and transitive:

(i) Relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3,13, 14} defined as

R = {(x, y): 3x − y = 0}

(ii) Relation R in the set N of natural numbers defined as

R = {(x, y): y = x + 5 and x < 4}

(iii) Relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} as

R = {(x, y): y is divisible by x}

(iv) Relation R in the set Z of all integers defined as

R = {(x, y): x − y is as integer}

(v) Relation R in the set A of human beings in a town at a particular time given by

(a) R = {(x, y): x and y work at the same place}

(b) R = {(x, y): x and y live in the same locality}

(c) R = {(x, y): x is exactly 7 cm taller than y}

(d) R = {(x, y): x is wife of y}

(e) R = {(x, y): x is father of y} - Q:- Check whether the relation R defined in the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} as

R = {(a, b): b = a + 1} is reflexive, symmetric or transitive. - Q:- Show that the relation R in the set R of real numbers, defined as R = {(a, b): a ≤ b
^{2}} is neither reflexive nor symmetric nor transitive. - Q:-
In each of the following cases, state whether the function is one-one, onto or bijective. Justify your answer.

(i)

*f*:**R → R**defined by*f(x)*= 3 – 4x(ii)

*f*:**R → R**defined by*f(x)*= 1 + x^{2 } - Q:-
Show that the Modulus Function

*f*: R → R, given by f(x) = |x|, is neither oneone nor onto, where | x | is x, if x is positive or 0 and |x| is – x, if x is negative. - Q:-
Prove that the Greatest Integer Function

*f*: R → R, given by f(x) = [x], is neither one-one nor onto, where [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x. - Q:- Show that the relation R in R defined as R = {(a, b): a ≤ b}, is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.
- Q:-
Let

*f*: R → R be defined as f(x) = 3x. Choose the correct answer.(A)

*f*is one-one onto(B)

*f*is many-one onto(C)

*f*is one-one but not onto(D)

*f*is neither one-one nor onto.

- Q:-
Determine order and degree(if defined) of differential equation y

^{n}+ (y')^{2}+ 2y =0 - Q:- If a matrix has 24 elements, what are the possible order it can have? What, if it has 13 elements?
- Q:-
y = e

^{x}+1**:**y^{n}-y^{'}= 0 - Q:-
Let

*f*: R → R be defined as f(x) = 3x. Choose the correct answer.(A)

*f*is one-one onto(B)

*f*is many-one onto(C)

*f*is one-one but not onto(D)

*f*is neither one-one nor onto. - Q:- Find the principal value of \begin{align} cos^{-1}\left(-\frac{1}{2}\right)\end{align}
- Q:- Show that the relation R in the set R of real numbers, defined as R = {(a, b): a ≤ b
^{2}} is neither reflexive nor symmetric nor transitive. - Q:-
Determine order and degree(if defined) of differential equation y' + 5y = 0

- Q:- Determine whether each of the following relations are reflexive, symmetric and transitive:

(i) Relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3,13, 14} defined as

R = {(x, y): 3x − y = 0}

(ii) Relation R in the set N of natural numbers defined as

R = {(x, y): y = x + 5 and x < 4}

(iii) Relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} as

R = {(x, y): y is divisible by x}

(iv) Relation R in the set Z of all integers defined as

R = {(x, y): x − y is as integer}

(v) Relation R in the set A of human beings in a town at a particular time given by

(a) R = {(x, y): x and y work at the same place}

(b) R = {(x, y): x and y live in the same locality}

(c) R = {(x, y): x is exactly 7 cm taller than y}

(d) R = {(x, y): x is wife of y}

(e) R = {(x, y): x is father of y} - Q:-
Determine order and degree(if defined) of differential equation

\begin{align}\left(\frac{d^2y}{dx^2}\right)^2\;+\;cos\left(\frac{dy}{dx}\right)\;=\;0\end{align}

- Q:-
Represent graphically a displacement of 40 km, 30° east of north.

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