Question 10

Given an example of a relation. Which is (i) Symmetric but neither reflexive nor transitive. (ii) Transitive but neither reflexive nor symmetric. (iii) Reflexive and symmetric but not transitive. (iv) Reflexive and transitive but not symmetric. (v) Symmetric and transitive but not reflexive.

(i) Let A = {5, 6, 7}.

Define a relation R on A as R = {(5, 6), (6, 5)}.

Relation R is not reflexive as (5, 5), (6, 6), (7, 7) ∉ R.

Now, as (5, 6) ∈ R and also (6, 5) ∈ R, R is symmetric.

=> (5, 6), (6, 5) ∈ R, but (5, 5) ∉ R

∴R is not transitive.

Hence, relation R is symmetric but not reflexive or transitive.

(ii) Consider a relation R in R defined as:

R = {(a, b): a < b}

For any a ∈ R, we have (a, a) ∉ R since a cannot be strictly less than a itself. In fact, a = a.

R is not reflexive.

Now,

(1, 2) ∈ R (as 1 < 2)

But, 2 is not less than 1.

(2, 1) ∉ R

R is not symmetric.

Now, let (a, b), (b, c) ∈ R.

a < b and b < c

a < c

⇒ (a, c) ∈ R

∴ R is transitive.

Hence, relation R is transitive but not reflexive and symmetric.

(iii) Let A = {4, 6, 8}.

Define a relation R on A as:

A = {(4, 4), (6, 6), (8, 8), (4, 6), (6, 4), (6, 8), (8, 6)}

Relation R is reflexive since for every aA, (a, a) ∈R i.e., (4, 4), (6, 6), (8, 8)} ∈ R.

Relation R is symmetric since (a, b) ∈ R ⇒ (b, a) ∈ R for all a, b ∈ R.

Relation R is not transitive since (4, 6), (6, 8) ∈ R, but (4, 8) ∉ R.

Hence, relation R is reflexive and symmetric but not transitive.

(iv) Define a relation R in R as:

R = {a, b): a3b3}

Clearly (a, a) ∈ R as a3 = a3.

∴ R is reflexive.

Now,

(2, 1) ∈ R (as 23 ≥ 13)

But,

(1, 2) ∉ R (as 13 < 23)

R is not symmetric.

Now,

Let (a, b), (b, c) ∈ R.

a3b3 and b3c3

a3c3

⇒ (a, c) ∈ R

∴ R is transitive.

Hence, relation R is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.

(v)  Let A = {−5, −6}.

Define a relation R on A as:

R = {(−5, −6), (−6, −5), (−5, −5)}

Relation R is not reflexive as (−6, −6) ∉ R.

Relation R is symmetric as (−5, −6) ∈ R and (−6, −5}∈R.

It is seen that (−5, −6), (−6, −5) ∈ R. Also, (−5, −5) ∈ R.

∴ The relation R is transitive.

Hence, relation R is symmetric and transitive but not reflexive.