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Question 19

Explain the working and application of a sonar.


SONAR is an acronym for Sound Navigation And Ranging .

SONAR is a device that uses ultrasonic waves to measure the distance , direction and speed of underwater objects . It is also used to measure the depth of seas and oceans.

A wave of ultrasonic sound is produced and transmitted by the transducer of the SONAR, which travels through sea water and strikes the object on the seabed, gets reflected back and is sensed by the detector. The detector converts the ultrasonic waves into electrical signals which are appropriately interpreted. The distance (d) of the under-water object is calculated from the time (t) taken by the echo to return with speed (v) is given by 2d = v × t. This method of measuring distance is also known as ‘echo-ranging’.

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