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Question 21

Explain how defects in a metal block can be detected using ultrasound.


Ultrasounds can be used to detect cracks and flaws in metal blocks. Defects in metal blocks occur due to crack in them. Cracks have air in them. The speed of sound in metal is greater than that in air. Thus, air acts as a rarer medium for sound waves. Whenever ultrasound is transmitted through a metal block that has defects, these waves get reflected in encountering such cracks. Therefore, these waves are not detected at the detector placed on the other side of the block, opposite to that of the transmitter. This indicates that there is a defect in the block.

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