This page offers a step-by-step solution to the specific question **NCERT Class 11th Physics - System of Particles and Rotational Motion | torques of equal magnitude are applied to a hollow Answer ** from NCERT Class 11th Physics, Chapter System of Particles and Rotational Motion.

Question 11

Torques of equal magnitude are applied to a hollow cylinder and a solid sphere, both having the same mass and radius. The cylinder is free to rotate about its standard axis of symmetry, and the sphere is free to rotate about an axis passing through its centre. Which of the two will acquire a greater angular speed after a given time?

Answer

Let m and r be the respective masses of the hollow cylinder and the solid sphere.

The moment of inertia of the hollow cylinder about its standard axis,*I*_{I} = mr^{2}

The moment of inertia of the solid sphere about an axis passing through its centre,* I*_{II} = 2/5 mr^{2}

We have the relation:

τ = *I *α

Where, α = Angular acceleration

τ = Torque

I = Moment of inertia

For the hollow cylinder, τ_{I} = *I*_{I}* *α_{I}

For the solid sphere, τ_{II} = *I*_{II}* *α_{II}

As an equal torque is applied to both the bodies, τ_{I} = τ_{2}

∴ α_{II }/ α_{I }= *I*_{I }/ *I*_{II = }mr^{2 }/ 2/5 mr^{2 }= 2/5

α_{II }> αI .... (i)

Now, using the relation:

ω = ω_{0} + αt

Where, ω_{0} = Initial angular velocity

t = Time of rotation

ω = Final angular velocity

For equal ω_{0} and t, we have:

ω ∝ α … (ii)

From equations (i) and (ii), we can write:

ω_{II} > ω_{I}

Hence, the angular velocity of the solid sphere will be greater than that of the hollow cylinder.

- Q:-
A child sits stationary at one end of a long trolley moving uniformly with a speed V on a smooth horizontal floor. If the child gets up and runs about on the trolley in any manner, what is the speed of the CM of the (trolley + child) system?

- Q:-
To maintain a rotor at a uniform angular speed of 200 rad s

^{–1}, an engine needs to transmit a torque of 180 Nm. What is the power required by the engine?(Note: uniform angular velocity in the absence of friction implies zero torque. In practice, applied torque is needed to counter frictional torque). Assume that the engine is 100 % efficient.

- Q:- Give the location of the centre of mass of a (i) sphere, (ii) cylinder, (iii) ring, and (iv) cube, each of uniform mass density. Does the centre of mass of a body necessarily lie inside the body?
- Q:-
(a) A child stands at the centre of a turntable with his two arms outstretched. The turntable is set rotating with an angular speed of 40 rev/min. How much is the angular speed of the child if he folds his hands back and thereby reduces his moment of inertia to 2/5 times the initial value? Assume that the turntable rotates without friction.

(b) Show that the child’s new kinetic energy of rotation is more than the initial kinetic energy of rotation. How do you account for this increase in kinetic energy?

- Q:-
Read each statement below carefully, and state, with reasons, if it is true or false;

(a) During rolling, the force of friction acts in the same direction as the direction of motion of the CM of the body.

(b) The instantaneous speed of the point of contact during rolling is zero.

(c) The instantaneous acceleration of the point of contact during rolling is zero.

(d) For perfect rolling motion, work done against friction is zero.

(e) A wheel moving down a perfectly frictionless inclined plane will undergo slipping (not rolling) motion.

- Q:-
A rope of negligible mass is wound round a hollow cylinder of mass 3 kg and radius 40 cm. What is the angular acceleration of the cylinder if the rope is pulled with a force of 30 N? What is the linear acceleration of the rope? Assume that there is no slipping.

- Q:-
A solid cylinder of mass 20 kg rotates about its axis with angular speed 100 rad s

^{-1}. The radius of the cylinder is 0.25 m. What is the kinetic energy associated with the rotation of the cylinder? What is the magnitude of angular momentum of the cylinder about its axis? - Q:-
A hoop of radius 2 m weighs 100 kg. It rolls along a horizontal floor so that its centre of mass has a speed of 20 cm/s. How much work has to be done to stop it?

- Q:-
Explain why friction is necessary to make the disc in Fig. 7.41 roll in the direction indicated.

(a) Give the direction of frictional force at B, and the sense of frictional torque, before perfect rolling begins.

(b) What is the force of friction after perfect rolling begins?

- Q:-
Some of the most profound statements on the nature of science have come from Albert Einstein, one of the greatest scientists of all time. What do you think did Einstein mean when he said : “The most incomprehensible thing about the world is that it is comprehensible”?

- Q:-
The sign of work done by a force on a body is important to understand. State carefully if the following quantities are positive or negative:

(a) work done by a man in lifting a bucket out of a well by means of a rope tied to the bucket.

(b) work done by gravitational force in the above case,

(c) work done by friction on a body sliding down an inclined plane,

(d) work done by an applied force on a body moving on a rough horizontal plane with uniform velocity,

(e) work done by the resistive force of air on a vibrating pendulum in bringing it to rest.

- Q:- In which of the following examples of motion, can the body be considered approximately a point object:

(a) a railway carriage moving without jerks between two stations.

(b) a monkey sitting on top of a man cycling smoothly on a circular track.

(c) a spinning cricket ball that turns sharply on hitting the ground.

(d) a tumbling beaker that has slipped off the edge of a table. - Q:- State, for each of the following physical quantities, if it is a scalar or a vector: volume, mass, speed, acceleration, density, number of moles, velocity, angular frequency, displacement, angular velocity.
- Q:- Give the magnitude and direction of the net force acting on

(a) a drop of rain falling down with a constant speed

(b) a cork of mass 10 g floating on water

(c) a kite skillfully held stationary in the sky

(d) a car moving with a constant velocity of 30 km/h on a rough road

(e) a high-speed electron in space far from all material objects, and free of electric and magnetic fields. - Q:-
A geyser heats water flowing at the rate of 3.0 litres per minute from 27 °C to 77 °C. If the geyser operates on a gas burner, what is the rate of consumption of the fuel if its heat of combustion is 4.0 x 10

^{4}J/g? - Q:-
Estimate the fraction of molecular volume to the actual volume occupied by oxygen gas at STP. Take the diameter of an oxygen molecule to be 3Å.

- Q:- Answer the following: (a) You can shield a charge from electrical forces by putting it inside a hollow conductor. Can you shield a body from the gravitational influence of nearby matter by putting it inside a hollow sphere or by some other means? (b) An astronaut inside a small space ship orbiting around the earth cannot detect gravity. If the space station orbiting around the earth has a large size, can he hope to detect gravity? (c) If you compare the gravitational force on the earth due to the sun to that due to the moon, you would find that the Suns pull is greater than the moons pull. (You can check this yourself using the data available in the succeeding exercises). However, the tidal effect of the moons pull is greater than the tidal effect of sun. Why?
- Q:- Explain why (a) The blood pressure in humans is greater at the feet than at the brain (b) Atmospheric pressure at a height of about 6 km decreases to nearly half of its value at the sea level, though the height of the atmosphere is more than 100 km (c) Hydrostatic pressure is a scalar quantity even though pressure is force divided by area.
- Q:- Which of the following examples represent periodic motion? (a) A swimmer completing one (return) trip from one bank of a river to the other and back. (b) A freely suspended bar magnet displaced from its N-S direction and released. (c) A hydrogen molecule rotating about its center of mass. (d) An arrow released from a bow.

- Q:- Which of the following examples represent periodic motion? (a) A swimmer completing one (return) trip from one bank of a river to the other and back. (b) A freely suspended bar magnet displaced from its N-S direction and released. (c) A hydrogen molecule rotating about its center of mass. (d) An arrow released from a bow.
- Q:-
The shells of crabs found around a particular coastal location in Japan seem mostly to resemble the legendary face of a Samurai. Given below are two explanations of this observed fact. Which of these strikes you as a scientific explanation ?

(a) A tragic sea accident several centuries ago drowned a young Samurai. As a tribute to his bravery, nature through its inscrutable ways immortalised his face by imprinting it on the crab shells in that area.

(b) After the sea tragedy, fishermen in that area, in a gesture of honour to their dead hero, let free any crab shell caught by them which accidentally had a shape resembling the face of a Samurai. Consequently, the particular shape of the crab shell survived longer and therefore in course of time the shape was genetically propagated. This is an example of evolution by artificial selection.

[Note : This interesting illustration taken from Carl Sagan’s ‘The Cosmos’ highlights the fact that often strange and inexplicable facts which on the first sight appear ‘supernatural’ actually turn out to have simple scientific explanations. Try to think out other examples of this kind].

- Q:-
A steam engine delivers 5.4 x 10

^{8}J of work per minute and services 3.6 x 10^{9 }J of heat per minute from its boiler. What is the efficiency of the engine? How much heat is wasted per minute? - Q:-
( i ) The time period of a body having simple harmonic motion depends on the mass m of the body and the force constant k:

T =2π √m/k

A simple pendulum exhibits simple harmonic motion. Then why does the time period of a pendulum not depend upon its mass?

( ii ) For small angle oscillations, a simple pendulum exhibits simple harmonic motion ( more or less). For larger angles of oscillation, detailed analysis show that T is greater than 2π√ l/g. Explain.

( iii ) A boy with a wristwatch on his hand jumps from a helicopter. Will the wrist watch give the correct time during free fall?

( iv ) Find the frequency of oscillation of a simple pendulum that is free falling from a tall bridge.

- Q:-
Precise measurements of physical quantities are a need of science. For example, to ascertain the speed of an aircraft, one must have an accurate method to find its positions at closely separated instants of time. This was the actual motivation behind the discovery of radar in World War II. Think of different examples in modern science where precise measurements of length, time, mass etc. are needed. Also, wherever you can, give a quantitative idea of the precision needed.

- Q:-
The speed-time graph of a particle moving along a fixed direction is shown in Fig. 3.28. Obtain the distance traversed by the particle between (a) t = 0 s to 10 s, (b) t = 2 s to 6 s.

(Fig. 3.28)

What is the average speed of the particle over the intervals in (a) and (b)?

- Q:-
Given a + b + c + d = 0, which of the following statements are correct:

(a) a, b, c, and d must each be a null vector,

(b) The magnitude of (a + c) equals the magnitude of (b+ d),

(c) The magnitude of a can never be greater than the sum of the magnitudes of b, c, and d,

(d) b + c must lie in the plane of a and d if a and d are not collinear, and in the line of a and d, if they are collinear?

- Q:-
A 50 kg girl wearing high heel shoes balances on a single heel. The heel is circular with a diameter 1.0 cm. What is the pressure exerted by the heel on the horizontal floor?

- Q:- Pick out the only vector quantity in the following list: Temperature, pressure, impulse, time, power, total path length, energy, gravitational potential, coefficient of friction, charge.
- Q:-
State if each of the following statements is true or false. Give reasons for your answer.

(a) In an elastic collision of two bodies, the momentum and energy of each body is conserved.

(b) Total energy of a system is always conserved, no matter what internal and external forces on the body are present.

(c) Work done in the motion of a body over a closed loop is zero for every force in nature.

(d) In an inelastic collision, the final kinetic energy is always less than the initial kinetic energy of the system.

- All Chapters Of Class 11 Physics

- All Subjects Of Class 11