This page offers a step-by-step solution to the specific question **NCERT Class 11th Physics - Waves | a narrow sound pulse for example a short pip by Answer ** from NCERT Class 11th Physics, Chapter Waves.

Question 23

A narrow sound pulse (for example, a short pip by a whistle) is sent across a medium.

(a) Does the pulse have a definite (i) frequency, (ii) wavelength, (iii) speed of propagation?

(b) If the pulse rate is 1 after every 20 s, (that is the whistle is blown for a split of second after every 20 s), is the frequency of the note produced by the whistle equal to or 0.05 Hz?

Answer

(a) (i)No (ii)No (iii)Yes

(b) No

Explanation: (a) The narrow sound pulse does not have a fixed wavelength or frequency. However, the speed of the sound pulse remains the same, which is equal to the speed of sound in that medium.

(b) The short pip produced after every 20 s does not mean that the frequency of the whistle is 1/20 or 0.05 Hz. It means that 0.05 Hz is the frequency of the repetition of the pip of the whistle.

- Q:-
A transverse harmonic wave on a string is described by

y(x,t) = 3.0 sin [36t + 0.018x + π /4]

Where x and y are in cm and t in s. The positive direction of x is from left to right.

(a) Is this a travelling wave or a stationary wave? If it is travelling, what are the speed and direction of its propagation?

(b) What are its amplitude and frequency?

(c) What is the initial phase at the origin?

(d) What is the least distance between two successive crests in the wave?

- Q:-
Use the formula

**v =**√γP/ρto explain why the speed of sound in air (a) is independent of pressure, (b) increases with temperature, (c) increases with humidity. - Q:- Explain why (or how):

(a) In a sound wave, a displacement node is a pressure antinode and vice versa,

(b) Bats can ascertain distances, directions, nature, and sizes of the obstacles without any eyes,

(c) A violin note and sitar note may have the same frequency, yet we can distinguish between the two notes,

(d) Solids can support both longitudinal and transverse waves, but only longitudinal waves can propagate in gases, and

(e) The shape of a pulse gets distorted during propagation in a dispersive medium. - Q:-
A stone dropped from the top of a tower of height 300 m high splashes into the water of a pond near the base of the tower. When is the splash heard at the top given that the speed of sound in air is 340 m s

^{-1}? (g= 9.8 m s^{-2}) - Q:-
A travelling harmonic wave on a string is described by

y(x,t) = 7.5sin [0.0050x + 12t + π/4]

(a) What are the displacement and velocity of oscillation of a point at x = 1 cm, and t = 1 s? Is this velocity equal to the velocity of wave propagation?

(b) Locate the points of the string which have the same transverse displacements and velocity as the x = 1 cm point at t = 2 s, 5 s and 11 s.

- Q:-
A bat emits ultrasonic sound of frequency 1000 kHz in air. If the sound meets a water surface, what is the wavelength of (a) the reflected sound, (b) the transmitted sound? Speed of sound in air is 340 m s

^{-1}and in water 1486 m s^{-1}. - Q:-
A pipe 20 cm long is closed at one end. Which harmonic mode of the pipe is resonantly excited by a 430 Hz source? Will the same source be in resonance with the pipe if both ends are open? (Speed of sound in air is 340 m s

^{-1}). - Q:-
A steel wire has a length of 12.0 m and a mass of 2.10 kg. What should be the tension in the wire so that speed of a transverse wave on the wire equals the speed of sound in dry air at 20 °C = 343 m s

^{-1}. - Q:-
For the travelling harmonic wave

y (x, t) = 2.0 cos 2π (10t - 0.0080 x + 0.35)

Where x and y are in cm and t in s. Calculate the phase difference between oscillatory motion of two points separated by a distance of

(a) 4 m,

(b) 0.5 m,

(c)

(d) 3λ / 4

- Q:-
A SONAR system fixed in a submarine operates at a frequency 40.0 kHz. An enemy submarine moves towards the SONAR with a speed of 360 km h

^{-1}. What is the frequency of sound reflected by the submarine? Take the speed of sound in water to be 1450 m s^{-1}.

- Q:-
Some of the most profound statements on the nature of science have come from Albert Einstein, one of the greatest scientists of all time. What do you think did Einstein mean when he said : “The most incomprehensible thing about the world is that it is comprehensible”?

- Q:-
The sign of work done by a force on a body is important to understand. State carefully if the following quantities are positive or negative:

(a) work done by a man in lifting a bucket out of a well by means of a rope tied to the bucket.

(b) work done by gravitational force in the above case,

(c) work done by friction on a body sliding down an inclined plane,

(d) work done by an applied force on a body moving on a rough horizontal plane with uniform velocity,

(e) work done by the resistive force of air on a vibrating pendulum in bringing it to rest.

- Q:- In which of the following examples of motion, can the body be considered approximately a point object:

(a) a railway carriage moving without jerks between two stations.

(b) a monkey sitting on top of a man cycling smoothly on a circular track.

(c) a spinning cricket ball that turns sharply on hitting the ground.

(d) a tumbling beaker that has slipped off the edge of a table. - Q:- State, for each of the following physical quantities, if it is a scalar or a vector: volume, mass, speed, acceleration, density, number of moles, velocity, angular frequency, displacement, angular velocity.
- Q:- Give the magnitude and direction of the net force acting on

(a) a drop of rain falling down with a constant speed

(b) a cork of mass 10 g floating on water

(c) a kite skillfully held stationary in the sky

(d) a car moving with a constant velocity of 30 km/h on a rough road

(e) a high-speed electron in space far from all material objects, and free of electric and magnetic fields. - Q:-
A geyser heats water flowing at the rate of 3.0 litres per minute from 27 °C to 77 °C. If the geyser operates on a gas burner, what is the rate of consumption of the fuel if its heat of combustion is 4.0 x 10

^{4}J/g? - Q:-
Estimate the fraction of molecular volume to the actual volume occupied by oxygen gas at STP. Take the diameter of an oxygen molecule to be 3Å.

- Q:- Give the location of the centre of mass of a (i) sphere, (ii) cylinder, (iii) ring, and (iv) cube, each of uniform mass density. Does the centre of mass of a body necessarily lie inside the body?
- Q:- Answer the following: (a) You can shield a charge from electrical forces by putting it inside a hollow conductor. Can you shield a body from the gravitational influence of nearby matter by putting it inside a hollow sphere or by some other means? (b) An astronaut inside a small space ship orbiting around the earth cannot detect gravity. If the space station orbiting around the earth has a large size, can he hope to detect gravity? (c) If you compare the gravitational force on the earth due to the sun to that due to the moon, you would find that the Suns pull is greater than the moons pull. (You can check this yourself using the data available in the succeeding exercises). However, the tidal effect of the moons pull is greater than the tidal effect of sun. Why?
- Q:- Explain why (a) The blood pressure in humans is greater at the feet than at the brain (b) Atmospheric pressure at a height of about 6 km decreases to nearly half of its value at the sea level, though the height of the atmosphere is more than 100 km (c) Hydrostatic pressure is a scalar quantity even though pressure is force divided by area.

- Q:-
A physical quantity P is related to four observables a, b, c and d as follows :

The percentage errors of measurement in a, b, c and d are 1%, 3%, 4% and 2%, respectively. What is the percentage error in the quantity P ? If the value of P calculated using the above relation turns out to be 3.763, to what value should you round off the result ?

- Q:-
The mass of a box measured by a grocer's balance is 2.300 kg. Two gold pieces of masses 20.15 g and 20.17 g are added to the box. What is

(a) the total mass of the box,

(b) the difference in the masses of the pieces to correct significant figures?

- Q:-
Three girls skating on a circular ice ground of radius 200 m start from a point P on the edge of the ground and reach a point Q diametrically opposite to P following different paths as shown in Fig. 4.20. What is the magnitude of the displacement vector for each? For which girl is this equal to the actual length of the path skated?

- Q:-
The principle of ‘parallax’ in section 2.3.1 is used in the determination of distances of very distant stars. The baseline AB is the line joining the Earth’s two locations six months apart in its orbit around the Sun. That is, the baseline is about the diameter of the Earth’s orbit ≈ 3 × 10

^{11}m. However, even the nearest stars are so distant that with such a long baseline, they show parallax only of the order of 1” (second) of arc or so. A parsec is a convenient unit of length on the astronomical scale. It is the distance of an object that will show a parallax of 1” (second) of arc from opposite ends of a baseline equal to the distance from the Earth to the Sun. How much is a parsec in terms of metres ? - Q:-
It is claimed that two cesium clocks, if allowed to run for 100 years, free from any disturbance, may differ by only about 0.02 s. What does this imply for the accuracy of the standard cesium clock in measuring a time-interval of 1 s?

- Q:-
The unit of length convenient on the nuclear scale is a fermi : 1 f = 10

^{ - 15}m. Nuclear sizes obey roughly the following empirical relation : r = r_{0}A^{1/3}where r is the radius of the nucleus, A its mass number, and r

_{0}is a constant equal to about, 1.2 f. Show that the rule implies that nuclear mass density is nearly constant for different nuclei. Estimate the mass density of sodium nucleus. Compare it with the average mass density of a sodium atom obtained in Exercise. 2.27. - Q:- Explain this statement clearly:

To call a dimensional quantity large or small is meaningless without specifying a standard for comparison. In view of this, reframe the following statements wherever necessary:

(a) atoms are very small objects

(b) a jet plane moves with great speed

(c) the mass of Jupiter is very large

(d) the air inside this room contains a large number of molecules

(e) a proton is much more massive than an electron

(f) the speed of sound is much - Q:-
The speed-time graph of a particle moving along a fixed direction is shown in Fig. 3.28. Obtain the distance traversed by the particle between (a) t = 0 s to 10 s, (b) t = 2 s to 6 s.

(Fig. 3.28)

What is the average speed of the particle over the intervals in (a) and (b)?

- Q:-
Estimate the average mass density of a sodium atom assuming its size to be about 2.5 Å. (Use the known values of Avogadro’s number and the atomic mass of sodium). Compare it with the density of sodium in its crystalline phase : 970 kg m

^{–3}. Are the two densities of the same order of magnitude ? If so, why ? - Q:-
A pebble of mass 0.05 kg is thrown vertically upwards. Give the direction and magnitude of the net force on the pebble,

(a) during its upward motion,

(b) during its downward motion,

(c) at the highest point where it is momentarily at rest.

Do your answers change if the pebble was thrown at an angle of 45° with the horizontal direction? Ignore air resistance.

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