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Question 12

Label Fig. 2.11 of the digestive system.

Digestive System


digestive system

Part Name Work
Salivary glands Saliva secretion
Stomach Acid release
Liver Bile juice secretion
Rectum Storage of undigested food
Small Intestine Digestion is completed
Large Intestine Absorption of water
Anus Release of faeces

1. Salivary glands: The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts. Humans have three paired major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual), a pair of seromucous tubarial glands (discovered in 2020) as well hundreds of minor salivary glands.
2. Stomach: Stomach is a muscular organ located on the left side of the upper abdomen. The stomach receives food from the oesophagus. As food reaches the end of the oesophagus, it enters the stomach through a muscular valve called the lower oesophagus sphincter. The stomach secretes acid and enzymes that digest food.
3. Liver: The liver is an organ only found in vertebrates which detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins and produces biochemical necessary for digestion and growth. In humans, it is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen.
4. Rectum: The rectum is a chamber that begins at the end of the large intestine, immediately following the sigmoid colon, and ends at the anus. Ordinarily, the rectum is empty because stool is stored higher in the descending colon.
5. Small Intestine: The small intestine or small bowel is an organ in gastrointestinal tract where most of the end absorption of nutrients and minerals from food takes place. It lies between the stomach and large intestine, and receives bile and pancreatic juice through the pancreatic duct to aid in digestion.
6. Large Intestine: The large intestine, also known as the large bowel, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates. Water is absorbed here and the remaining waste material is stored as faeces before being removed by defecation.
7. Anus: The anus is the opening where the gastrointestinal tract ends and exits the body. The anus starts at the bottom of the rectum, the last portion of the colon (large intestine). The anorectal line separates the anus from the rectum. Tough tissue called fascia surrounds the anus and attaches it to nearby structures.

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