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Question 1

Match structures given in Column I with functions given in Column II.

Column I                           Column II
(i) Stomata                        (a) Absorption of water
(ii) Xylem                           (b) Transpiration
(iii) Root hairs                    (c) Transport of food
(iv) Phloem                        (d) Transport of water
                                          (e) Synthesis of carbohydrates


Column I                           Column II
(i) Stomata                       (b) Transpiration
(ii) Xylem                          (d) Transport of water
(iii) Root hairs                   (a) Absorption of water
(iv) Phloem                       (c) Transport of food

1. Stomata: Stomata are the specialized epidermal structures consists of small pores (surrounded by guard cells) which are responsible for the gaseous exchange between plant and the environment. Transpiration is the loss of water from the aerial parts of the plants like leaves in the water vapours form; and this occurs through the stomata which is known as stomatal transpiration. 

2. Xylem: The water and minerals from soil enters the plant through the roots and then pass into the xylem, then from this the dissolved mineral and water moves in the upward direction that occurs from the soil to the uppermost leaves. This upward movement of minerals and water against the gravitational force through the xylem is known as ascent of sap.

3. Root hair: Roots are the primary source for the absorption of water and contains large number of root hair which makes intimate contact with the soil particles and amplifies the surface area for the water absorption by the plant; then water from the soil enters into the root through root hair. Diagram:

       root hair

4. Phloem: The movement of the phloem sap (complex mixture of organic and inorganic substances) from the leaves to other parts of the plant through the phloem is known as phloem translocation.

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