Q1 Determine whether each of the following relations are reflexive, symmetric and transitive: (i) Relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3,13, 14} defined as R = {(x, y): 3x − y = 0} (ii) Relation R in the set N of natural numbers defined as R = {(x, y): y = x + 5 and x < 4} (iii) Relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} as R = {(x, y): y is divisible by x} (iv) Relation R in the set Z of all integers defined as R = {(x, y): x − y is as integer} (v) Relation R in the set A of human beings in a town at a particular time given by (a) R = {(x, y): x and y work at the same place} (b) R = {(x, y): x and y live in the same locality} (c) R = {(x, y): x is exactly 7 cm taller than y} (d) R = {(x, y): x is wife of y} (e) R = {(x, y): x is father of y}
Q2 Show that the relation R in the set R of real numbers, defined as R = {(a, b): a ≤ b2} is neither reflexive nor symmetric nor transitive.
Q3 Check whether the relation R defined in the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} as R = {(a, b): b = a + 1} is reflexive, symmetric or transitive.
Q4 Show that the relation R in R defined as R = {(a, b): a ≤ b}, is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.
Q5 Check whether the relation R in R defined as R = {(a, b): a ≤ b3} is reflexive, symmetric or transitive.
Q6 Show that the relation R in the set {1, 2, 3} given by R = {(1, 2), (2, 1)} is symmetric but neither reflexive nor transitive.
Q7 Show that the relation R in the set A of all the books in a library of a college, given by R = {(x, y): x and y have same number of pages} is an equivalence relation.
Q8 Show that the relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} given by R = { (a,b) ; |a - b| is even}, is an equivalence relation. Show that all the elements of {1, 3, 5} are related to each other and all the elements of {2, 4} are related to each other. But no element of {1, 3, 5} is related to any element of {2, 4}.
Q9 Show that each of the relation R in the set A = { x ∈Z: 0≤x≤12}, A={x} given by (i) R = { (a,b) : |a - b| is a multiple of 4} (ii) R = {(a,b):a = b} is an equivalence relation. Find the set of all elements related to 1 in each case.
Q10 Given an example of a relation. Which is (i) Symmetric but neither reflexive nor transitive. (ii) Transitive but neither reflexive nor symmetric. (iii) Reflexive and symmetric but not transitive. (iv) Reflexive and transitive but not symmetric. (v) Symmetric and transitive but not reflexive.
Q11 Show that the relation R in the set A of points in a plane given by R = {(P, Q): distance of the point P from the origin is same as the distance of the point Q from the origin}, is an equivalence relation. Further, show that the set of all point related to a point P ≠ (0, 0) is the circle passing through P with origin as centre.
Q12 Show that the relation R defined in the set A of all triangles as R = {(T1, T2): T1 is similar to T2}, is equivalence relation. Consider three right angle triangles T1 with sides 3, 4, 5, T2 with sides 5, 12, 13 and T3 with sides 6, 8, 10. Which triangles among T1, T2 and T3 are related?
Q13 Show that the relation R defined in the set A of all polygons as R = {(P1, P2): P1 and P2 have same number of sides}, is an equivalence relation. What is the set of all elements in A related to the right angle triangle T with sides 3, 4 and 5?
Q14 Let L be the set of all lines in XY plane and R be the relation in L defined as R = {(L1, L2): L1 is parallel to L2}. Show that R is an equivalence relation. Find the set of all lines related to the line y = 2x + 4.
Q15 Let R be the relation in the set {1, 2, 3, 4} given by R = {(1, 2), (2, 2), (1, 1), (4, 4), (1, 3), (3, 3), (3, 2)}. Choose the correct answer. (A) R is reflexive and symmetric but not transitive. (B) R is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric. (C) R is symmetric and transitive but not reflexive. (D) R is an equivalence relation.
Q16 Let R be the relation in the set N given by R = {(a, b): a = b − 2, b > 6}. Choose the correct answer. (A) (2, 4) ∈ R (B) (3, 8) ∈R (C) (6, 8) ∈R (D) (8, 7) ∈ R

Question 13

Show that the relation R defined in the set A of all polygons as R = {(P1, P2): P1 and P2 have same number of sides}, is an equivalence relation. What is the set of all elements in A related to the right angle triangle T with sides 3, 4 and 5?
Answer

R = {(P _{1} , P _{2} ): P _{1} and P _{2} have same the number of sides}

R is reflexive since (P _{1} , P _{1} ) ∈ R as the same polygon has the same number of sides with itself.

Let (P _{1} , P _{2} ) ∈ R.

⇒ P _{1} and P _{2} have the same number of sides.

⇒ P _{2} and P _{1} have the same number of sides.

⇒ (P _{2} , P _{1} ) ∈ R

∴R is symmetric.

Now,

Let (P _{1} , P _{2} ), (P _{2} , P _{3} ) ∈ R.

⇒ P _{1} and P _{2} have the same number of sides. Also, P _{2} and P _{3} have the same number of sides.

⇒ P _{1} and P _{3} have the same number of sides.

⇒ (P _{1} , P _{3} ) ∈ R

∴R is transitive.

Hence, R is an equivalence relation.

The elements in A related to the right-angled triangle (T) with sides 3, 4, and 5 are those polygons which have 3 sides (since T is a polygon with 3 sides).

Hence, the set of all elements in A related to triangle T is the set of all triangles.