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Question 4

Explain how soil is formed.

Answer

Soil is the thin layer of materials covering the earth’s surface and is formed from the weathering of rocks or differentiation from the parent rock. It is made up mainly of minerals particles 50%, 5% soil organic materials, 20% air and 25% water.

Formation of Soil:
Soil is formed from parent's rocks by the process of weathering. In weathering, rocks are broken down very slowly by the physical (temperature, exfoliation, water, glaciers etc.) and the chemical methods (hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction etc.) to form tiny rock particles. These tiny rock particles then mix up with humus to form fertile soil which is known as humification process. And, then release of organically bound nutrients occurs that changes into the inorganic form that are available to plants and microbes; this process is known as mineralization.

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