Question 13

# Show that the relation R defined in the set A of all polygons as R = {(P1, P2): P1 and P2 have same number of sides}, is an equivalence relation. What is the set of all elements in A related to the right angle triangle T with sides 3, 4 and 5?

Answer

R = {(*P*_{1}, *P*_{2}): *P*_{1} and *P*_{2} have same the number of sides}

R is reflexive since (*P*_{1}, *P*_{1}) ∈ R as the same polygon has the same number of sides with itself.

Let (*P*_{1}, *P*_{2}) ∈ R.

⇒ *P*_{1} and *P*_{2} have the same number of sides.

⇒ *P*_{2} and *P*_{1} have the same number of sides.

⇒ (*P*_{2}, *P*_{1}) ∈ R

∴R is symmetric.

Now,

Let (*P*_{1}, *P*_{2}), (*P*_{2}, *P*_{3}) ∈ R.

⇒ *P*_{1} and *P*_{2} have the same number of sides. Also, *P*_{2} and *P*_{3} have the same number of sides.

⇒ *P*_{1} and *P*_{3} have the same number of sides.

⇒ (*P*_{1}, *P*_{3}) ∈ R

∴R is transitive.

Hence, R is an equivalence relation.

The elements in *A* related to the right-angled triangle (*T)* with sides 3, 4, and 5 are those polygons which have 3 sides (since *T* is a polygon with 3 sides).

Hence, the set of all elements in *A* related to triangle *T* is the set of all triangles.

- Q:- Given an example of a relation. Which is

(i) Symmetric but neither reflexive nor transitive.

(ii) Transitive but neither reflexive nor symmetric.

(iii) Reflexive and symmetric but not transitive.

(iv) Reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.

(v) Symmetric and transitive but not reflexive. - Q:- Determine whether each of the following relations are reflexive, symmetric and transitive:

(i) Relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3,13, 14} defined as

R = {(x, y): 3x − y = 0}

(ii) Relation R in the set N of natural numbers defined as

R = {(x, y): y = x + 5 and x < 4}

(iii) Relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} as

R = {(x, y): y is divisible by x}

(iv) Relation R in the set Z of all integers defined as

R = {(x, y): x − y is as integer}

(v) Relation R in the set A of human beings in a town at a particular time given by

(a) R = {(x, y): x and y work at the same place}

(b) R = {(x, y): x and y live in the same locality}

(c) R = {(x, y): x is exactly 7 cm taller than y}

(d) R = {(x, y): x is wife of y}

(e) R = {(x, y): x is father of y} - Q:- Show that the relation R in the set {1, 2, 3} given by R = {(1, 2), (2, 1)} is symmetric but neither reflexive nor transitive.
- Q:- Show that the relation R in the set R of real numbers, defined as R = {(a, b): a ≤ b
^{2}} is neither reflexive nor symmetric nor transitive. - Q:- Check whether the relation R defined in the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} as

R = {(a, b): b = a + 1} is reflexive, symmetric or transitive. - Q:-
In each of the following cases, state whether the function is one-one, onto or bijective. Justify your answer.

(i)

*f*:**R → R**defined by*f(x)*= 3 – 4x(ii)

*f*:**R → R**defined by*f(x)*= 1 + x^{2 } - Q:- Let L be the set of all lines in XY plane and R be the relation in L defined as R = {(L1, L2): L1 is parallel to L2}. Show that R is an equivalence relation. Find the set of all lines related to the line y = 2x + 4.
- Q:-
Show that the Modulus Function

*f*: R → R, given by f(x) = |x|, is neither oneone nor onto, where | x | is x, if x is positive or 0 and |x| is – x, if x is negative. - Q:-
Prove that the Greatest Integer Function

*f*: R → R, given by f(x) = [x], is neither one-one nor onto, where [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x. - Q:- Show that the relation R in R defined as R = {(a, b): a ≤ b}, is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.

- Q:- Check whether the relation R defined in the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} as

R = {(a, b): b = a + 1} is reflexive, symmetric or transitive. - Q:-
Let

*f*: X → Y be an invertible function. Show that*f*has unique inverse.(Hint: suppose g1 and g2 are two inverses of f. Then for all

*y ∈ Y, fog1(y) = 1Y(y) = fog2(y)*. Use one-one ness of*f*). - Q:- Show that the relation R in R defined as R = {(a, b): a ≤ b}, is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.
- Q:- Given an example of a relation. Which is

(i) Symmetric but neither reflexive nor transitive.

(ii) Transitive but neither reflexive nor symmetric.

(iii) Reflexive and symmetric but not transitive.

(iv) Reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.

(v) Symmetric and transitive but not reflexive. - Q:-
In each of the following cases, state whether the function is one-one, onto or bijective. Justify your answer.

(i)

*f*:**R → R**defined by*f(x)*= 3 – 4x(ii)

*f*:**R → R**defined by*f(x)*= 1 + x^{2 } - Q:-
Determine order and degree(if defined) of differential equation y' + 5y = 0

- Q:-
The rate of change of the area of a circle with respect to its radius

*r*at*r*= 6 cm is(A) 10π (B) 12π (C) 8π (D) 11π

- Q:-
The length

*x*of a rectangle is decreasing at the rate of 5 cm/minute and the width*y*is increasing at the rate of 4 cm/minute. When*x*= 8 cm and*y*= 6 cm, find the rates of change of (a) the perimeter, and (b) the area of the rectangle. - Q:- Find values of x, if (i) \(\begin{vmatrix}2 & 4\\2 & 1\end{vmatrix}\) = \(\begin{vmatrix}2x & 4\\6 & x\end{vmatrix}\) (ii) \(\begin{vmatrix}2 & 3\\4 & 5\end{vmatrix}\) = \(\begin{vmatrix}x & 3\\2x & 5\end{vmatrix}\)
- Q:-
Classify the following as scalar and vector quantities.

(i) time period (ii) distance (iii) force

(iv) velocity (v) work done

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