Question 8

# Show that the relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} given by R = { (a,b) ; |a - b| is even}, is an equivalence relation. Show that all the elements of {1, 3, 5} are related to each other and all the elements of {2, 4} are related to each other. But no element of {1, 3, 5} is related to any element of {2, 4}.

Answer

*A* = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

R = { (a,b) ; |a – b| is even}

It is clear that for any element *a* ∈*A*, we have |a -a| = 0(which is even).

∴R is reflexive.

Let (*a*, *b*) ∈ R.

=> |a –b| is even.

=> |- (a –b)| = |b - a| is also even.

=> (b, a) ∈ R is even.

*A* = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

R = { (a, b) : | a – b| is even}

It is clear that for any element *a* ∈*A*, we have |a - a | = 0 (which is even).

∴R is reflexive.

Let (*a*, *b*) ∈ R.

⇒ |a –b| is even.

⇒ |- (a –b)| = |b - a| is also even.

⇒ (b, a) ∈ R is even.

∴R is symmetric.

Now, let (*a*, *b*) ∈ R and (*b*, *c*) ∈ R.

⇒ |a –b| is even and |(b –c)| is even.

⇒ (a – b) is even and (b –c ) is even.

⇒ (a –c ) = (a – b) + (b – c ) is even. [ Sum of two even integers is even]

⇒ |a – c | is even.

⇒ (*a*, *c*) ∈ R

∴R is transitive.

Hence, R is an equivalence relation.

Now, all elements of the set {1, 3, 5} are related to each other as all the elements of this subset are odd. Thus, the modulus of the difference between any two elements will be even.

Similarly, all elements of the set {2, 4} are related to each other as all the elements of this subset are even.

Also, no element of the subset {1, 3, 5} can be related to any element of {2, 4} as all elements of {1, 3, 5} are odd and all elements of {2, 4} are even. Thus, the modulus of the difference between the two elements (from each of these two subsets) will not be even.

∴R is symmetric.

Now, let (*a*, *b*) ∈ R and (*b*, *c*) ∈ R.

⇒ |a –b| is even and |(b –c)| is even.

⇒ (a – b) is even and (b –c ) is even.

⇒ (a –c ) = (a – b) + (b – c ) is even. [ Sum of two even integers is even]

⇒ |a – c | is even.

⇒ (*a*, *c*) ∈ R

∴R is transitive.

Hence, R is an equivalence relation.

Now, all elements of the set {1, 3, 5} are related to each other as all the elements of this subset are odd. Thus, the modulus of the difference between any two elements will be even.

Similarly, all elements of the set {2, 4} are related to each other as all the elements of this subset are even.

Also, no element of the subset {1, 3, 5} can be related to any element of {2, 4} as all elements of {1, 3, 5} are odd and all elements of {2, 4} are even. Thus, the modulus of the difference between the two elements (from each of these two subsets) will not be even.

- Q:- Determine whether each of the following relations are reflexive, symmetric and transitive:

(i) Relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3,13, 14} defined as

R = {(x, y): 3x − y = 0}

(ii) Relation R in the set N of natural numbers defined as

R = {(x, y): y = x + 5 and x < 4}

(iii) Relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} as

R = {(x, y): y is divisible by x}

(iv) Relation R in the set Z of all integers defined as

R = {(x, y): x − y is as integer}

(v) Relation R in the set A of human beings in a town at a particular time given by

(a) R = {(x, y): x and y work at the same place}

(b) R = {(x, y): x and y live in the same locality}

(c) R = {(x, y): x is exactly 7 cm taller than y}

(d) R = {(x, y): x is wife of y}

(e) R = {(x, y): x is father of y} - Q:- Given an example of a relation. Which is

(i) Symmetric but neither reflexive nor transitive.

(ii) Transitive but neither reflexive nor symmetric.

(iii) Reflexive and symmetric but not transitive.

(iv) Reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.

(v) Symmetric and transitive but not reflexive. - Q:- Show that each of the relation R in the set A = { x ∈Z: 0≤x≤12}, A={x} given by

(i) R = { (a,b) : |a - b| is a multiple of 4}

(ii) R = {(a,b):a = b} is an equivalence relation.

Find the set of all elements related to 1 in each case. - Q:-
Check the injectivity and surjectivity of the following functions:

(i)

*f*:**N → N**given by*f(x*) = x^{2}(ii)

*f*:**Z → Z**given by*f(x)*= x^{2}(iii)

*f*:**R → R**given by*f(x)*= x^{2}(iv)

*f*:**N → N**given by*f(x)*= x^{3}(v)

*f*:**Z → Z**given by*f(x)*= x^{3 } - Q:- Let L be the set of all lines in XY plane and R be the relation in L defined as R = {(L1, L2): L1 is parallel to L2}. Show that R is an equivalence relation. Find the set of all lines related to the line y = 2x + 4.
- Q:-
Prove that the Greatest Integer Function

*f*: R → R, given by f(x) = [x], is neither one-one nor onto, where [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x. - Q:- If a matrix has 24 elements, what are the possible order it can have? What, if it has 13 elements?
- Q:- Show that the relation R in the set R of real numbers, defined as R = {(a, b): a ≤ b
^{2}} is neither reflexive nor symmetric nor transitive. - Q:-
Show that the Modulus Function

*f*: R → R, given by f(x) = |x|, is neither oneone nor onto, where | x | is x, if x is positive or 0 and |x| is – x, if x is negative. - Q:- Show that the relation R in R defined as R = {(a, b): a ≤ b}, is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.

- Q:- Let L be the set of all lines in XY plane and R be the relation in L defined as R = {(L1, L2): L1 is parallel to L2}. Show that R is an equivalence relation. Find the set of all lines related to the line y = 2x + 4.
- Q:- Determine whether each of the following relations are reflexive, symmetric and transitive:

(i) Relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3,13, 14} defined as

R = {(x, y): 3x − y = 0}

(ii) Relation R in the set N of natural numbers defined as

R = {(x, y): y = x + 5 and x < 4}

(iii) Relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} as

R = {(x, y): y is divisible by x}

(iv) Relation R in the set Z of all integers defined as

R = {(x, y): x − y is as integer}

(v) Relation R in the set A of human beings in a town at a particular time given by

(a) R = {(x, y): x and y work at the same place}

(b) R = {(x, y): x and y live in the same locality}

(c) R = {(x, y): x is exactly 7 cm taller than y}

(d) R = {(x, y): x is wife of y}

(e) R = {(x, y): x is father of y} - Q:-
Consider

*f*: {1, 2, 3} → {a, b, c} given by*f(1)*= a,*f(2)*= b and*f(3)*= c. Find*f*and show that^{ –1}*(f*=^{ –1})^{–1}*f*. - Q:-
Determine order and degree(if defined) of differential equation \begin{align} \frac{d^4y}{dx^4}\;+\;\sin(y^m)\;=0\end{align}

- Q:-
Let

*f*,*g*and*h*be functions from R to R. Show that*(f + g)oh = foh + goh**(f . g)oh = (foh) . (goh)* - Q:- Show that the relation R in the set {1, 2, 3} given by R = {(1, 2), (2, 1)} is symmetric but neither reflexive nor transitive.
- Q:- If a matrix has 24 elements, what are the possible order it can have? What, if it has 13 elements?
- Q:-
Let A = R – {3} and B = R – {1}. Consider the function

*f*: A → B defined by. Is f one-one and onto? Justify your answer. - Q:-
Let A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {4, 5, 6, 7} and let

*f*= {(1, 4), (2, 5), (3, 6)} be a function from A to B. Show that*f*is one-one. - Q:- Given an example of a relation. Which is

(i) Symmetric but neither reflexive nor transitive.

(ii) Transitive but neither reflexive nor symmetric.

(iii) Reflexive and symmetric but not transitive.

(iv) Reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.

(v) Symmetric and transitive but not reflexive.

- NCERT Chapter

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